Albian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0–72.1
Campanian 72.1–83.6
Santonian 83.6–86.3
Coniacian 86.3–89.8
Turonian 89.8–93.9
Cenomanian 93.9–100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5–~113.0
Aptian ~113.0–~125.0
Barremian ~125.0–~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4–~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9–~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8–~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 112.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 99.6 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago). The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.[1]

Stratigraphic definitions[edit]

The Albian stage (French Albien, from Alba = the River Aube in France) was first proposed in 1842 by Alcide d'Orbigny.

The base of the Albian is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the coccolithophore species Praediscosphaera columnata first appears. A reference profile for the base of the Albian stage (its GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been established.

The top of the Albian stage (the base of the Cenomanian stage and Upper Cretaceous series) is defined as the place where the foram species Rotalipora globotruncanoides first appears in the stratigraphic column.[2]

The Albian is sometimes subdivided in Early/Lower, Middle and Late/Upper subages or substages. In western Europe, especially in the UK, a subdivision in two substages (Vraconian and Gaultian) is more often used.

Lithofacies[edit]

The following representatives of the Albian stage are worthy of notice: the phosphorite beds of the Argonne and Bray areas in France; the Flammenmergel of northern Germany; the lignites of Utrillas in Spain; the Upper sandstones of Nubia, and the Fredericksburg beds of North America.

Palaeontology[edit]

Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA
Aptian to ?Albian Ulansuhai Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, USA A medium-sized nodosaurid, measuring about 5 meters (16.5 ft) long, Sauropelta had a distinctively long tail which made up about half of its body length. Its neck and back were protected by an extensive bony body armor including characteristically large spines
Mongolia
Dakota Formation, Kansas, USA A nodosaurid estimated to have been approximately four meters in length (13 ft). Besides the usual rounded and polygonal osteoderms, Silvisaurus may have also sported bony spines on its shoulders and tail
Late Albian to early Cenomanian Frontier Formation, Wyoming, USA A poorly known genus of nodosaurid
Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USA Poorly known, probably a nodosaurid

Birds (avian theropods)[edit]

Birds of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Bony Fish[edit]

Bony Fish of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Alabama, Georgia and Kansas, USA; Czech Republic; Canada; Australia

Cartilaginous Fish[edit]

Cartilaginous fish of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Western Interior Seaway, North America
Europe, Russia, North America and New Zealand

†Ceratopsia[edit]

Ceratopsia of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Gobi Desert, Mongolia Had an intermediate phylogenetic position between Liaoceratops and Archaeoceratops within Neoceratopia

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Crocodylomorphs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Africa

†Ichthyosaurs[edit]

Ichthyosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Mammalia[edit]

Mammals of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
several species from Hauterivian to Albian Spain, Mongolia
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia

†Ornithopods[edit]

Ornithopods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Khukhtek Formation, Dornogovi Province, Mongolia An advanced iguanodontian, just basal to the family Hadrosauridae
Aptian/Albian Dinosaur Cove, Victoria, Australia 2–3 meters long hypsilophodont
Albian-Cenomanian Utah, USA An iguanodont
China
Mongolia
China An early hadrosauroid iguanodont, about 17 – 20 feet (5 – 6 metres) in length. It had a narrow snout, an elongated lower jaw and double rows of flattened cheek teeth. It was a possible ancestor of the duck-billed dinosaurs.
Barremian to Albian
Aptian to Albian Purgatoire Formation, Colorado, USA An iguanodont described as intermediate in derivation between Camptosaurus and Iguanodon
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Montana, USA Hypsilophodont

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosauria of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Aptian to Albian Hughenden district, Queensland, Australia Among the largest pliosaurs, body-length estimates put the total length of Kronosaurus at 9–10 meters

†Pterosauria[edit]

Pterosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Cambridge Greensand, United Kingdom
Morocco; Santana Formation, Brazil; Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USA
Lianmuxin Formation, Xinjiang, China
Valanginian to Albian Lagarcito Formation, Argentina
Aptian or Albian Santana Formation, Brazil
Aptian to early Albian Santan do Cariri, Brazil; St Gallen, Switzerland
Albian or Cenomanian Santana Formation, Brazil
 ? Zhejiang, China

†Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Mid to Late Albian Utah, USA
Egypt The only known bones of this sauropod were destroyed in World War II.
Early Cretaceous Brazil
Algeria The bones referred to "B." nougaredi probably belong to more than one different species.
Atian-Albian Utah
South America
Aptian or Albian Montana
Aptian-early Albian Oklahoma This sauropod weighed up to 60 tonnes, making it one of the largest known dinosaurs.
early Albian Tunisia Tataouinea had highly pneumatic pelvic bones, suggesting that sauropods had abdominal air sacs.

†Theropods (non-avian)[edit]

Theropods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
North America
Asia
Niger
North America
France
France
South America
Japan
Africa
Africa
Australia
North America The largest known dromaeosaurid

Ammonites[edit]

Ammonitida[edit]

  • Moffitites
Originating in Lower Albian Strata[edit]

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in lower Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Originating in Middle Albian Strata[edit]

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in middle Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Originating in Upper Albian Strata[edit]

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in upper Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Schloenbachia
Scaphites

Belemnites[edit]

Belemnites of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Belemnites

Nautiloids[edit]

Nautiloids of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Phylloceratida[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a detailed geologic timescale, see Gradstein et al. (2004)
  2. ^ See Kennedy et al. (2004) for a description of the GSSP for the Cenomanian
  3. ^ Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Retrieved July 8, 2011. 

Literature[edit]

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kennedy, W.J.; Gale, A.S.; Lees, J.A. & Caron, M.; 2004: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Cenomanian Stage, Mont Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France, Episodes 27, pp. 21–32.
  • d'Orbigny, A.C.V.M.; 1842: Paléontologie française: Terrains crétacés, vol. ii. (French)

External links[edit]

Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian