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Goetze's combined training in Indo-European and Semitic linguistics placed him into a peculiarly advantageous position to tackle the emerging field of Hittite studies at the end of World War I. His contributions to that field are numerous and most reliably commented on in Finkelstein's 1972 bibliography.
With Sturtevant, he laid the foundations to what later became the Goetze-Wittmann law (spirantization of palatal stops before u as the focal origin for the diffusion of the Centum-Satem isogloss). The diffusion hypothesis of the Satem features has the merit to motivate the existence of marginal Satem features in Greek, Albanian and Tocharian and of marginal Kentum features in Armenian.