Albrecht von Graefe

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For the German politician, see Albrecht von Graefe (politician).
Albrecht von Gräfe
Albrecht v Graefe3.jpg
Born May 22, 1828
Finkenheerd, Brandenburg
Died July 20, 1870
Berlin, Brandenburg
Nationality German
Fields ophthalmology
Alma mater Humboldt University of Berlin
Known for treatment of glaucoma
Influences Johannes Müller, Carl Ferdinand von Arlt
Influenced Johann Friedrich Horner, Richard Liebreich

Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Gräfe,[1] often Anglicized to Graefe[2] (May 22, 1828 – July 20, 1870), was a pioneer of German ophthalmology. Graefe was born in Finkenheerd, Brandenburg, the son of Karl Ferdinand von Graefe (1787-1840). He was the father of the far right politician Albrecht von Graefe (1868-1933).

Background[edit]

He studied philosophy, logic, natural sciences and anatomy in Berlin, obtaining his medical doctorate in 1847. He continued his studies at Prague, Paris, Vienna and London, and having devoted special attention to ophthalmology, in 1850, he began to practice as an oculist in Berlin. Here, he founded a private institution for the treatment of eyes. During the same year, he received his habiltation with the thesis Über die Wirkung der Augenmuskeln.[3]

In 1858 he became an associate professor of ophthalmology in Berlin, where in 1866 he was appointed a full professor.[4] In 1870, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

He had a wife and three children. Two of which died in infancy.

He died in Berlin from pulmonary tuberculosis on July 20, 1870. His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof II der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Cemetery No. II of the congregations of Jerusalem's Church and New Church) in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.

Memorial at the Charité Berlin by Rudolf Siemering

Contributions[edit]

Graefe made many contributions to ophthalmological science, being considered one of the more important (if not the most important) figures in 19th century ophthalmology. Among his achievements were a method of treating glaucoma and a new operation for cataract.

He introduced iridectomy for glaucoma,[5] identified retardation of the eyelid in Basedow's disease,[4] and described the combination of retinitis pigmentosa and perceptive deafness in Usher's syndrome.[6] Also, he provided early descriptions of optic neuritis (1860),[7] chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (1868).[8] and papilledema (involving four patients with brain tumor and a swelling of the optic disc).[9][4] In addition, he is credited with design of a specialized knife, the "Von Graefe knife", for cataract surgery.[10] The eponymous "Gräfe's sign" is associated with Graves-Basedow disease.[11]

In 1855 he founded the Archiv für Ophthalmologie, in which Carl Ferdinand von Arlt (1812-1887) and Franciscus Donders (1818-1889) collaborated. In 1863 he founded the Deutsche Ophtalmologische Gesellschaft.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Gräfe, Albrecht von", in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XI. 1880.
  2. ^ See the article on Ä.
  3. ^ Biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
  4. ^ a b c d Albrecht von Graefe @ Who Named It
  5. ^ Medical disctionary Graefe's operation
  6. ^ Usher's syndrome @ Who Named It
  7. ^ Optic Neuritis: Historical Aspects J Neuroophthalmol 2001 December;21(4):302-309
  8. ^ MR of Extraocular Muscles in Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 19:95–99, January 1998
  9. ^ Cyber-Sight Orbis Papilledema
  10. ^ ASCRS Eye World Graefe honored for advances in ophthalmology
  11. ^ Graefe's sign at WhoNamedIt

References[edit]

  • See Ein Wort der Erinnerung an Albrecht von Gräfe (Halle, 1870) by his cousin, Alfred Gräfe (1830–1899), also a distinguished ophthalmologist, and the author of Das Sehen der Schielenden (Wiesbaden 1897); and E Michaelis, Albrecht von Gräfe. Sein Leben und Wirken (Berlin,1877).
  • Tan SY, Zia JK (September 2007). "Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870): founder of scientific ophthalmology". Singapore Medical Journal 48 (9): 797–8. PMID 17728957. 
  • Klopstock T (August 2004). "Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870)" [Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870) Notes on the cover picture]. Der Nervenarzt (in German) 75 (8): 831. doi:10.1007/s00115-004-1736-1. PMID 15175855. 
  • Emel'ianova NA, Iakovlev AA (2001). "Albrecht von Graefe—an outstanding German ophthalmologist (his life, medical and scientific activities)" [Albrecht von Graefe—an outstanding German ophthalmologist (his life, medical and scientific activities)]. Vestnik Oftalmologii (in Russian) 117 (6): 54–5. PMID 11845701. 
  • Kohnen T (September 2000). "The ASCRS honouring of Albrecht von Graefe. American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery". Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 238 (9): 807. doi:10.1007/s004170000201. PMID 11045351. 
  • Haas LF (April 1998). "Albrecht von Graefe (1828–70)". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 64 (4): 504. doi:10.1136/jnnp.64.4.504. PMC 2170041. PMID 9576543. 
  • Remky H (September 1995). "Albrecht von Graefe. Facets of his work. On the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his death (20 July 1870)". Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 233 (9): 537–48. doi:10.1007/BF00404703. PMID 8543203. 
  • Verdaguer J (September 1992). "Albrecht von Graefe: The man and his time" [Albrecht von Graefe: The man and his time]. Revista Médica De Chile (in Spanish) 120 (9): 1070–9. PMID 1340988. 
  • Koelbing HM, Speiser P (1990). "The Graefe memorial stone—in memory of A. von Graefe's contributions in Heiden" [The Graefe memorial stone—in memory of A. von Graefe's contributions in Heiden]. Gesnerus (in German) 47 (1): 109–17. PMID 2184097. 
  • Jaeger W (1988). "Numismatic history of the von Graefe Medal of the German Ophthalmological Society" [Numismatic history of the von Graefe Medal of the German Ophthalmological Society]. Klinika Oczna (in German) 90 (4–5): 186–7. PMID 3071653. 
  • Kyle RA, Shampo MA (July 1980). "Albrecht von Graefe". JAMA 244 (1): 20. doi:10.1001/jama.244.1.20. PMID 6991724. 
  • Fuhrmeister H (May 1980). "Hallesche Duplikate der Majolikareliefs vom Berliner Albrecht-von-Graefe-Denkmal" [Copies of the majolica bas-reliefs form the Albrecht von Graefe Monument in Berlin, installed in the Halle polyklinik (author's transl)]. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (in German) 176 (5): 867–9. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1057574. PMID 7003219. 
  • Blodi FC (September 1979). "Ophthalmology and philately: I. Ophthalmologists on stamps.--Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870)". Archives of Ophthalmology 97 (9): 1653. PMID 383052. 
  • Kettesy A (December 1975). "The polemics on strabogenesis between A. v. Graefe and F. C. Donders (author's transl)" [The polemics on strabogenesis between A. v. Graefe and F. C. Donders]. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (in German) 167 (6): 785–91. PMID 775177. 
  • "Von Graefe-prize. Determinations" [Von Graefe-prize. Determinations]. Bericht Über Die Zusammenkunft (in German) 71: 755–6. 1972. PMID 4582045. 
  • "Statute concerning the award and grant of the "Graefe medal"" [Statute concerning the award and grant of the "Graefe medal"]. Bericht Über Die Zusammenkunft (in German) 71: 755. 1972. PMID 4582044. 
  • Wachholz EA (1972). "Cataract knife and cataract incision from Jean Jacques Daviel to Albrecht von Graefe" [Cataract knife and cataract incision from Jean Jacques Daviel to Albrecht von Graefe]. Bericht Über Die Zusammenkunft (in German) 71: 709–12. PMID 4582039. 
  • Goldmann H (1971). "Albrecht von Graefe und das Glaukom" [Albrecht von Graefe and glaucoma]. Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie (in German) 181 (2): 94–106. doi:10.1007/BF00414750. PMID 4929756. 
  • Rintelen F (1971). "Albrecht von Graefe, seine Persönlichkeit, seine Zeit" [Albrecht von Graefe, his personality and his times]. Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv Für Klinische Und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie (in German) 181 (2): 79–93. doi:10.1007/BF00414749. PMID 4929755. 
  • Cooper SN (December 1970). "Editorial. Albrecht von Graefe". Journal of the All-India Ophthalmological Society 18 (4): 150–3. PMID 4945054. 
  • Toselli C (September 1970). "In memory of Albrecht von Graefe. (1828–1870)" [In memory of Albrecht von Graefe. (1828–1870)]. Annali di Ottalmologia e Clinica Oculistica (in Italian) 96 (9): 433–51. PMID 4932709. 
  • Böck J (1970). "Zum 100. Todestag Albrecht von Graefes" [Centennial of the death of Albrecht von Graefe]. Albrecht Von Graefes Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie (in German) 180 (2): 93. doi:10.1007/BF00411322. PMID 4918512. 
  • Hoffmann-Axthelm W (1969). "The von Graefe family and their estate "Finkenherd" in the Berlin zoological garden" [The von Graefe family and their estate "Finkenherd" in the Berlin zoological garden]. Bericht Über Die Zusammenkunft (in German) 69: 685–706. PMID 4901495. 
  • , (July 1966). "Albrecht von Graefe (1828–1870)". JAMA 197 (4): 292–3. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03110040102025. PMID 5328336. 
  • "Dr. Albrecht von Graefe in Behrenstrasse will treat free of charge the eye diseases of the poor". Archives of Ophthalmology 74 (4): 545–8. October 1965. doi:10.1001/archopht.1965.00970040547020. PMID 5320138. 
  • Leopold IH (1958). "Albrecht von Graefe". Diabetes 7 (2): 151–4. PMID 13512131. 
  • Kugelberg F (December 1950). "Albrecht von Graefe, 1828–1870; memorial lecture at the Swedish Medical Association meeting on the 10th of October 1950" [Albrecht von Graefe, 1828–1870; memorial lecture at the Swedish Medical Association meeting on the 10th of October 1950]. Svenska Läkartidningen (in Swedish) 47 (51): 2954–63. PMID 14798580. 
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Famous Ophthalmologists

External links[edit]