Alcaligenes

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Alcaligenes
Alcaligenes faecalis PHIL-stained.jpg
Alcaligenes faecalis. Flagella stain.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Beta Proteobacteria
Order: Burkholderiales
Family: Alcaligenaceae
Genus: Alcaligenes
Castellani & Chalmers 1919
Species

A. aestus
A. aquatilis
A. cupidus
A. defragrans
A. denitrificans
A. eutrophus
A. faecalis
A. latus
A. pacificus
A. piechaudii
A. ruhlandii
A. venustus
A. xylosoxidans

Alcaligenes is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. The species are motile with one or more peritrichous flagella and rarely nonmotile. It is a genus of nonfermenting bacteria (in the family Achromobacteraceae). Additionally, some strains of Alcaligenes are capable of anaerobic respiration, but they must be in the presence of nitrate or nitrite; otherwise, their metabolism is respiratory and never fermentative; The Alcaligenes Genus does not use carbohydrates. Strains of Alcaligenes (such as Alcaligenes faecalis) are found mostly in the intestinal canal of vertebrates, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil; they can be isolated from human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and wounds in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems. They are occasionally the cause of opportunistic infections, including nosocomial septicemia. It is occasionally the cause of opportunistic infections [1] [2]

A species of Alcaligene called A. faeca´lis causes nosocomial septicemia, arising from contaminated hemodialysis or intravenous fluid, in immunocompromised patients. [3]

Alcaligenes species have been used for the industrial production of non-standard amino acids; A. eutrophus also produces the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB).

They are rods, coccal rods, or cocci sized at about 0.5-1.0 x 0.5-2.6. They are obligately aerobic, but some can undergo anaerobic respiration if nitrate is present. They tend to be colorless. They typically occur in the soil and water, and some live in the intestinal tract of vertebrates. Samples from blood, urine, feces, discharge from ears, spinal fluid and wounds have produced this type of bacteria. Referenced from Holt. Zoonotic infections from ferrets have been recorded.[4]

Alcaligenes and Cystic Fibrosis

Alcaligenes species have been increasingly recovered over the past decade from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). An experiment recently examined the frequency of correct identification of Alcaligenes spp. by microbiology labs affiliated with American CF patient care centers. Most (89%) strains of microbial agent in these test were correctly identified by the referring laboratories as as species of Alcaligenes called Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. [5]

Common Species of Alcaligenes Alcaligenes faecalis is a species of Alcaligenes that was isolated in 1896 by Petruschky from stale beer. Several strains of the organism have been found since that isolation. This specific species of Alcaligenes is motile, flagellated, slender, slightly curved, non-spore-forming, slowly growing, nonfermenting, nonencapsulated gram-negative aerobe of the family Achromobacter, which is the family that the Genus Alcaligenes belongs to. This species is most commonly found in the alimentary tract as a harmless saprophyte in 5% – 19% of the normal population. Systemic infection with this organism is very uncommon. It has been reported to cause sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, enteric fever, appendicitis, cystitis, chronic suppurative otitis media, abscesses, arthritis, pneumonitis, and endocarditis. It has been associated with fatal outcomes due to the fact that these organisms are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. [6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=2048
  2. ^ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alcaligenes
  3. ^ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Alcaligenes
  4. ^ Malek-Marín T et al (2009) A case of endocarditis of difficult diagnosis in dialysis: could "pest" friends be involved? Clin Nephrol 72(5):405-409
  5. ^ Saiman, Lisa, Yunhua Chen, Setareh Tabibi, Pablo San Gabriel, Juyan Zhou, Zhenling Liu, Lena Lai, and Susan Whittier. "Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Alcaligenes Xylosoxidans Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39.11 (2001): 3942-945. NCBI. Web. 27 May 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88468/>
  6. ^ Kavuncuoglu, F., A. Unal, N. Oguzhan, B. Tokgoz, O. Oymak, and C. Utas. "First Reported Case of Alcaligenes Faecalis Peritonitis." Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 30.1 (2010): 118-19. Web. 27 May 2014. <http://www.pdiconnect.com/content/30/1/118.full>
  • Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed. ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  • Holt, John G. (1994). Determinative Bacteriology; 9th edition. Maryland: Williams & Wilkins. p. 75. ISBN 0-683-00603-7. 
  • {{Saiman, Lisa, Yunhua Chen, Setareh Tabibi, Pablo San Gabriel, Juyan Zhou, Zhenling Liu, Lena Lai, and Susan Whittier. "Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Alcaligenes Xylosoxidans Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39.11 (2001): 3942-945. NCBI. Web. 27 May 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88468/>.}}
  • {{Kavuncuoglu, F., A. Unal, N. Oguzhan, B. Tokgoz, O. Oymak, and C. Utas. "First Reported Case of Alcaligenes Faecalis Peritonitis." Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 30.1 (2010): 118-19. Web. 27 May 2014. <http://www.pdiconnect.com/content/30/1/118.full>.}}


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