Aldgate

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Coordinates: 51°30′48″N 0°04′40″W / 51.5132°N 0.0777°W / 51.5132; -0.0777

Ward of Aldgate
1600 Aldgate.jpg
1600 print of Aldgate
Ward of Aldgate is located in Greater London
Ward of Aldgate
Ward of Aldgate
 Ward of Aldgate shown within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ334813
    - Charing Cross 2.3 mi (3.7 km)  WSW
Sui generis City of London
Administrative area Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district EC3
Postcode district E1
Dialling code 020
Police City of London
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament Cities of London and Westminster
London Assembly City and East
List of places
UK
England
London

Aldgate was the eastern-most gateway through the London Wall leading from the City of London to Whitechapel and the East End of London. It gives its name to a City ward bounded by White Kennet Street in the north and Crutched Friars in the south, taking in Leadenhall and Fenchurch Streets, which remain principal thoroughfares through the City, each splitting from the short street named Aldgate that connects to Aldgate High Street. The road is situated 2.3 miles (4 km) east north-east of Charing Cross.

John Cass's school, where a plaque records the former placement of London Wall, is sited on the north side of Aldgate (the street).

History[edit]

It is thought that a gate at Aldgate was already spanning the road to Colchester in the Roman period, when the City wall itself was constructed. The gateway stood at the corner of the modern Duke's Place and was always an obstacle to traffic. It was rebuilt between 1108–47, again in 1215, and reconstructed completely between 1607-09. The gate was finally removed in 1761; it was temporarily re-erected at Bethnal Green.

An old illustration of the gate, c. 1650.

The etymology of the name "Aldgate" is disputed. Writing in the 16th century, John Stow derived the name from "Old Gate" (Aeld Gate). However, Henry Harben, writing in 1918, contended that this was wrong and that documents show that the "d" is missing in documents written before 1486-7. Alternative meanings include "Ale Gate" in connection with a putative ale-house or "All Gate" meaning the gate was free to all. Other possibilities canvassed by Harben include reference to a Saxon named "Ealh," or reference to foreigners ("el") or oil ("ele") or "awl". Gillian Bebbington, writing in 1972, suggests Alegate, Aelgate ("public gate") or Aeldgate" (Old Gate") as equally viable alternatives whilst Weinreb and Hibbert, writing in 1983, revert to Stow's theory that the name means "Old Gate".[1][2][3]

While he was a customs official, from 1374 until 1386, Geoffrey Chaucer occupied apartments above the gate.[3] The Augustinians priory of Holy Trinity Aldgate was founded by Matilda, the wife of King Henry I, in 1108, on ground just inside the gate.[4]

Within Aldgate ward, a short distance to the north of the gate, Jews settled from 1181, until their expulsion in 1290 by King Edward I. The area became known as Old Jewry. Jews were welcomed back by Oliver Cromwell, and once again they settled in the area, founding London's oldest synagogue at Bevis Marks in 1698.[5]

In about 1420 the Whitechapel Bell Foundry was founded in Aldgate, but it later moved to nearby Whitechapel. The foundry continued to supply bells to churches in the City, including the rebuilt church of St Botolph Without Aldgate in 1744.[6]

Aldgate Pump, at the junction of Aldgate, Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street.

At Aldgate's junction with Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street is the site of the old Aldgate Pump. From 1700 it was from this point that distances were measured into the counties of Essex and Middlesex. The original pump was taken down in 1876, and a 'faux' pump and drinking fountain was erected several yards to the west of the original; it was supplied by water from the New River. In ancient deeds, Alegate Well is mentioned, adjoining the City wall, and this may have been the source (of water) for the original pump. A section of the remains of Holy Trinity Priory can be seen through a window in a nearby office block, on the north side.

Cole's 1755 map of Aldgate ward (note east is to top of page).

In 1773 Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral by Phillis Wheatley, the first book by an African American was published in Aldgate after her owners could not find a publisher in Boston, Massachusetts.[7]

Daniel Mendoza was born in 1764 to a Jewish family in Aldgate. He was author of The Art of Boxing and became an English boxing champion from 1792 to 1795.[8]

Aldgate is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an Alderman to the Court of Aldermen and Commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City are eligible to stand.

The area around the large traffic roundabout to the east of where the gate stood is also often referred to as Aldgate (although strictly, this is Aldgate High Street, and extends a short distance into Whitechapel; it is also known occasionally by the epithet 'Gardiners' Corner', in honour of a long-disappeared department store).

Today[edit]

The City ward of Aldgate is bounded on the east by the line of the former London Wall, effectively parallel with Houndsditch, which separates it from the Portsoken ward; it is bounded on the south by Tower ward and on the west and north by the Langbourn, Lime Street, and Bishopsgate wards.[9]

The ward today is dominated by the insurance industry, with several brokers and underwriters based there; prominent buildings include the Lloyd's Register building, 30 St Mary Axe (formerly the Swiss Re Building), the Willis Building and the London Metal Exchange.

On 10 April 1992 the Provisional IRA detonated a bomb close to the Baltic Exchange, severely damaging the historic building and neighbouring structures.[10] 30 St Mary Axe now occupies the site and the Baltic Exchange is located at No. 38, St Mary Axe.

Three churches are located in Aldgate ward: St. Botolph's, St Katharine Cree (1631) and St Andrew Undershaft (1532) - administered from St. Helen's in Lime Street ward.

The Bevis Marks Synagogue (1699), the oldest in the United Kingdom, is also located in the ward, on Bevis Marks.

The nearest London Underground station is Aldgate on the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. Nearby mainline railway stations are located at Liverpool Street and Fenchurch Street, and Tower Gateway is the closest Docklands Light Railway station.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert (1983) The London Encyclopedia. London, BCA:14
  2. ^ Gillian Bebbington (1972) Street Names of London. London, Batsford: 21
  3. ^ a b 'Aldermary Churchyard - Aldgate Ward', A Dictionary of London (1918) accessed: 21 May 2007
  4. ^ John Schofield, Richard Lea Holy Trinity Priory, Aldgate, City of London: an archaeological reconstruction and history (MoLAS 2005) ISBN 1-901992-45-4
  5. ^ Bevis Marks Synagogue Joseph Jacobs and Edgar Mels (Jewish Encyclopedia) accessed 30 March 2010
  6. ^ Whitechapel Bell foundry 500 years of history accessed 21 May 2007
  7. ^ Frontispiece to Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral accessed 21 May 2007
  8. ^ Daniel Mendoza - International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame accessed 21 May 2007
  9. ^ 'Book 2, Ch. 5: Aldgate Ward', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 545-49 accessed: 21 May 2007
  10. ^ Extreme restoration Megan Lane 5 July 2007 (BBC News magazine) accessed 23 Sep 2007

External links[edit]