Aldolase A is an enzyme that catalyses a reversible aldol reaction: The substrate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) is broken down into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). This reaction is a part of glycolysis. Three fructose-bisphosphate aldolase isozymes (A, B, and C), encoded by three different genes, are differentially expressed during development. Aldolase A is found in the developing embryo and is produced in even greater amounts in adult muscle. Aldolase A expression is repressed in adult liver, kidney, and intestine and similar to aldolase C levels in brain and other nervous tissue. Aldolase A deficiency has been associated with myopathy and hemolytic anemia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.
In mammalian aldolase, the key catalytic amino acid residues involved in the reaction are lysine and tyrosine. The tyrosine acts as an efficient hydrogen acceptor while the lysine covalently binds and stabilizes the intermediates. Many bacteria use two magnesiumions in place of the lysine.
The reaction mechanism of aldolase.
The enzyme's reactive site amino acid's side-chains are shown in blue.
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