Aldudes

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Aldudes
Nive River
Nive River
Coat of arms of Aldudes
Coat of arms
Aldudes is located in France
Aldudes
Aldudes
Coordinates: 43°05′49″N 1°25′28″W / 43.0969°N 1.4244°W / 43.0969; -1.4244Coordinates: 43°05′49″N 1°25′28″W / 43.0969°N 1.4244°W / 43.0969; -1.4244
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Arrondissement Bayonne
Canton Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry
Intercommunality Garazi-Baïgorri
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Jean-Michel Dendarieta
Area1 23.27 km2 (8.98 sq mi)
Population (2010)2 372
 • Density 16/km2 (41/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 64016 / 64430
Elevation 345–1,000 m (1,132–3,281 ft)
(avg. 485 m or 1,591 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aldudes (Basque: Aldude) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aldulais or Aldulaises[1]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

The village Aldudes is part of Pays Quint[2] (Kintoa in Basque or Quinto Real in Spanish). The commune is an area of pasture belonging to Spain but cultivated by French farmers.

It is located in the Aldudes valley on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes in the Basque province of Lower Navarre. It is on the Spanish border some 20 km south-west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port although it can not be directly accessed from there.

Access[edit]

Access is by the D948 road from Saint-Etienne-de-Baigorry in the north which passes through the village then continues south to Urepel. The D58 road goes from the village through the length of the commune before continuing to Spain through Urepel commune. The Spanish border of Navarre forms the south-western and north-eastern borders of the commune.[3]

The village of Esnazu.

Hydrography[edit]

Located in the watershed of the Adour, Aldudes is traversed by the Nive d'Aldudes with its many tributaries such as the Urbeltch Labiaringo erreka, the Aktieltako erreka, and numerous unnamed streams. Paul Raymond mentioned[4] the Autrin, a stream which rises in Aldudes and joins the Nive des Aldudes.

Localities and hamlets[5][edit]

Aldude sign
  • Abanjo
  • Abrakou
  • Achtieta
  • Aguerréa
  • Ahadilépo
  • Alachontro
  • Alamontcho
  • Alasta
  • Alastagaraya
  • Ametzlépo
  • Antonénéa
  • Aranbelea
  • Arrokia
  • Asketa
  • Atabala
  • Aucho
  • Autrin
  • Auzkia
  • Barbachuri
  • Baztanchuria
  • Behorsubuztan
  • Berha
  • Bidartea
  • Chabadinénéa
  • Chalosa
  • Chekalebeherea
  • Chekalegaraya
  • Chiloénéa
  • Chotro
  • Chotroenborda
  • Domingoénéa
  • Egnauténéa
  • Elgartéa
  • Elhocady[4]
  • Elichaga
  • Erremedio
  • Errienta
  • Esnazu[4][6] (or Eznazu, or Esnaratsu on the Cassini Map)
  • Etcheberria
  • Etchemendia
  • Ferranjagaraya
  • Hachketa
  • Haritzchilo
  • Harribeltzia
  • Iguxkagerrea (or Iguchkaguerrea[7])
  • Joanessénéa
  • Joangnakei
  • Koche
  • Koskartéa
  • Koskarteko Borda
  • Koskorziloa
  • Landart
  • Lechaka
  • Lekuederra[8] (or Lekuederrea)
  • Col de Lepeder[4]
  • Luichénéa
  • Mahatcheta
  • Makurea
  • Manechuna
  • Marquitchaénéa
  • Martinénéa
  • Mate
  • Meharroztegui (Pass, 738m)[4])
  • Menementa[9]
  • Miguelartzaina
  • Miguelénéa
  • Munichta
  • Munichtagaraya
  • Murruoin
  • Nobléa
  • Oliopitchar
  • Otsachar
  • Ohhanburua
  • Otsanhaitz
  • Oyhanzelhaya
  • Paratzelhaï
  • Patchiko
  • Pilaria
  • Pocomotzénéa
  • Poko
  • Le Pont Romain
  • Predotinéa
  • Premundoa
  • Pritchia
  • Sabina
  • Salaria
  • Sallaberria
  • Sarahandia
  • Sarahandiko Ithurria
  • Sarkindéa
  • Semeder
  • Soldadoénéa
  • Ttattola
  • Turrieta
  • Uhaldéa
  • Urrichka
  • Zelhaybeguia

Neighbouring communes and villages[3][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The name of the commune in Basque is Aldude. Aldudes was also the name given to the entire valley bordering the Baigorry Valley and the Spanish border.[4]

Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposes the construction ald(a)-uhide meaning "the path beside the water".[10] According to Ernest Nègre however, the name Aldudes is a contraction of the basque Aldubide meaning "way to the summits" from the root aldu meaning "heights" and bide meaning "way".[11] The romanisation into Aldudes is actually a plural.

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Aldudes Alduide 1193 Orpustan Village
Montes de alduides 1237 Mérimée
Aldude 1353 Mérimée
Alduyde 1374 Mérimée
Alduyde 1381 Orpustan
Alduyde 1392 Orpustan
Alduide 1614 Raymond
4
Camara
Les Aldudes 1863 Raymond
4
Elhocady Elhocady 1863 Raymond
58
Redoubt on the Spanish border
Esnazu Eznazu 1863 Raymond
64
Hamlet
Le Labiarine Le Labiarine 1863 Raymond
87
Hamlet
Lepeder Lépéder 1863 Raymond
99
Mountain
Col de Meharroztegui Col de Méharoztéguy 1863 Raymond
111
Pass
Col de Phaaçaldéguy Col de Phaaçaldéguy 1863 Raymond
135
Pass to Spain
Col d’Urtiague Col d’Urtiague 1863 Raymond
172
Pass to Spain

Sources:

Origins: Camara: Titles of Camara de Comptos[12]

History[edit]

The commune originated in the 16th century when young noblemen of the Baigory family founded the village which, by the ancient Basque succession rule, reserved the legacy of the family house exclusively to the eldest child. The parish was established in 1793.[2]

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aldudes
Blazon:

Quarterly, first of gules bordered in Or charged with the monogram of the Virgin surmounted by a small cross the same all bordered in azure; second argent 3 wood-pigeons azure 2 and 1; third Or a Lachua glove posed in bend accompanied in sinister chief by a palote the whole proper; fourth gules a majuscule letter K of argent surmounted by a royal crown of Or.[13]



Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[14]

From To Name Party Position
1801 1808 Jean Tihista
1808 1815 Jean Ardantz
1815 1816 Jean Uhide
1816 1829 Martin Arrambide
1829 1831 Charles Schmarzow
1831 1833 Salvat Larre
1833 1839 Mathieu Barcelona
1839 1848 Charles Schmarzow
1848 1860 Pierre Mococain
1860 1862 Alfred Saurel
1862 >1871 Étienne Ritou
1995 2014 Perio Setoain
2014 2020 Jean-Michel Dendarieta

(Not all data is known)

Inter-communality[edit]

The commune of Aldudes participates in five intercommunal organisations:

  • the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri
  • the intercommunal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port
  • the joint association of the watershed of the Nive
  • the association to support Basque culture
  • the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 372 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
- 1,320 1,675 2,187 2,329 2,391 2,832 2,885 2,824
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
2,760 1,328 1,226 1,195 1,179 1,197 1,261 1,196 1,152
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
1,077 1,042 1,008 961 976 984 960 930 851
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2007 2008
807 718 586 483 433 395 378 376 373
2009 2010 - - - - - - -
374 372 - - - - - - -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Aldudes

Economy[edit]

Fish Farm

A fish farm is active on the road to Urepel.

Basque pig breeding is an activity in full revival in the Aldudes valley, under the leadership of the Technical Institute of Pork (ITP).

The commune hosts the Ets Pierre Oteiza company (gourmet pork products) which is one of the fifty top agribusinesses in the department.

It is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone of Ossau-iraty.

Culture and heritage[edit]

Languages[edit]

According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces, published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aldudes is western Lower Navarrese dialect.

Laxoa[edit]

In 1952 the square in front of the church and the town hall was converted into a playing field for "laxoa". This ancient game of basque pelote is played with leather gloves.

At the entrance porch of the church is the target for the game.

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune contains a number of sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • Houses and Farms (18th-19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[15]
  • The Menementa Farm (1827)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[9]
  • The Iguxkagerrea Farm (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[7]
  • The Joalginenborda Farm (19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[8]
Other sites of interest
  • Cromlechs: There are three Harrespils on the Argibel site. These are great circles of stone or "menhirs" for funerary purposes, dated from the 1st millennium BC. The Harrespil are notable due to their number (over 100 registered) and their witness to knowledge of ancient burial rites.

Religious Heritage[edit]

The commune has two religious sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The 'Chapel of the Assumption (1868)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg at a place called Eznazu has been listed on the Inventory of cultural heritage since 21 March 2003.[6] It contains a Retable and Statues (17th century) which are registered as historical objects.Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[16]
Other religious sites of interest
  • Some Hilarri in the cemetery are from the 19th century - two from 1805.

Environmental heritage[edit]

  • Palombière is the property of the association of the Baigorry Valley. This hunt at 500 metres above sea level was created in 1840 by the mayor of the town, Charles Schmarsow. Reorganized in 1880, it then passed into the hands of the Ospital family who still lead the hunt. The five Filetiers use five pantières or special nets and ten beaters to direct the pigeons to the nets.

Picture Gallery[edit]

Facilities[edit]

Education[edit]

The commune has a private primary school (Mendi-Alde).

Notable People linked to the commune[edit]

  • Georges Lacombe, born 31 January 1879 in Orthez and died July 1947 in Paris, was a linguist, bascologuue, and Basque French academic. On the eve of the First World War he prepared, with the help of Dr. Jean Etchepare,[18][19] a doctorate in Letters on the Aldudes dialect.
  • Bernard Delhom, born in 1885 in Aldudes, was the oldest man in France from 30 December 1995 to 7 February 1996 when he died in Paris at the age of 110 years and 213 days
  • Jean-Baptiste Urrutia, born in 1901 at Aldudes and died in Montbeton, was a missionary in Indochina and Bishop of Huế during the Indochina War and the Vietnam War

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  2. ^ a b c IA64000418 Presentation of the commune (French)
  3. ^ a b Google Maps
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
  5. ^ Géoportail, IGN (French)
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000403 Chapel of the Assumption (French)Camera aabb.svg
  7. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000455 Iguxkagerrea Farm (French)Camera aabb.svg
  8. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000454 Joalginenborda Farm (French)Camera aabb.svg
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000456 Menementa Farm (French)
  10. ^ a b Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 (French)
  11. ^ Ernest Nègre, General Toponymy of France, Librairie Droz, 1990, ISBN 2 600 00133 6, No. 19228 (French)
  12. ^ Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda - Diccionario de Antiguedades del reino de Navarra, 1840, Pamplona (Spanish)
  13. ^ Guy Ascarat
  14. ^ List of Mayors of France
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000487 Houses and Farms (French)
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000027 Retable and Statues (French)
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000400 Parish Church of Notre-Dame (French)Camera aabb.svg
  18. ^ (Spanish) Centenario de Euskaltzaleen Biltzarra
  19. ^ Official website of Euskaltzaleen Biltzarra