Kościuszko Square in Aleksandrów Łódzki
|• Mayor||Jacek Lipiński|
|• Total||13.47 km2 (5.20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||206 m (676 ft)|
|• Density||1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||95-069 to 95-070|
|Area code(s)||+48 42|
Aleksandrów Łódzki [alɛkˈsandruf ˈwut͡skʲi]( listen) - is a town in Łódzkie Voivodship and belongs to Łódź agglomeration. According to data gathered on 20 May 2002, the town had a population of 20 220.
The village was founded in 1816 by Rafał Bratoszewski. In 1820 Rajmund Rembieliński called Aleksandrów "one of the better towns in Poland". Bernard von Schuttenbach was the author of the town planning project. In order to gain sympathy of the government, Bratoszewski called the town after the then ruling Russian Emperor Alexander I Romanov. This resulted in Aleksandrów gaining the city rights in 1822. After the Bratoszewski' s death in 1824 the Kossowski family took over the town. After 1832 the town started to fall into decline economically overwhelmed by the nearby towns of Pabianice, Zgierz and Łódź.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, many knitting companies were founded in Aleksandrów, so it is called the cradle of polish stocking industry and also gained a nickname "Sock-city" among the citizens. This trade is still the main one today.
In 1910 the town gained a tram connection with Łódź, which was discontinued in 1991.
From the beginning Aleksandrów was a town of three cultures and three religions. There were Protestant descendants of German knitters, Jews that were into trade and, of course, Catholic Poles that mainly worked as craftsmen and workers in factories. Until 1945 the richest and most numerous ethnic group were Germans. The Jewish population in 1900 was 1,673. For the Jewish, Aleksandrów was an important religious centre - the seat of Hasidic Tzadikim of the Alexander dynasty founded by Rabbi Yechiel Dancyger (1828–1894). It was also the location where Rabbi Chanokh Heynekh HaKohen Levin, the second Rebbe of the Ger Hasidim held court until his death in Aleksandrów in 1870.
In 1869 Aleksandrów lost its city rights for more than 60 years. The rights were regained in 1924. Currently it is a headquarters of an Aleksandrów Łódzki commune.
In September 2006 the First International Convention of Aleksandrów citizens was held.
- c.a. 6500 B.C. – Oldest traces of humans - settlement of ancient hunters on dunes near the Rąbień reserve.
- 11th-12th century – First villages founded in the current area of Aleksandrów Łódzki commune: Rąbień, Bełdów, Brużyca Wielka, Prawęcice and Zgniłe Błoto.
- 14th-15th century - More villages and Church of All Saints in Bełdów founded.
- 1782 – First German settlers arrive in Brużyca Wielka, many colonies founded.
- c.a 1816 – Owner of Brużyca Wielka – Polish nobleman Rafał Bratoszewski coat of arms Sulima founded a new city settlement on a sandy and forestry hill – this was the future Aleksandrów. A rectangular marketplace was made along with few streets. Squire Bratoszewski founded the catholic parish of St. Rafael and Michael.
- 22 March 1822 – New settlement gained city rights and was named Aleksandrów in the name of then-ruling tzar of Russia and king of Poland – Alexander I of Russia. Aleksandrów had then 3,086 citizens, the majority of them were weavers.
- 1824 - Neo-classical town hall built during the mayor Gedeon Goedel's term.
- 6 December 1824 - Founder of Aleksandrów Rafał Bratoszewski died and was buried in the local church. Aleksandrów became the property of the Kossowski coat of arms Dołęga family.
- 1825 – The city as an example of perfect weaving center was visited by the tzar of Russia and king of Poland Alexander I of Russia.
- 1828 - A huge evangelic church built, Fryderyk Jerzy Tuve became the first pastor.
- 1830–1831 – Citizens along with Gedeon Goedel supported the November Uprising by sending uniforms, a squad and a doctor to Warsaw.
- 25 October 1833 - Izrael Poznański is born in Aleksandrów.
- 1858-1860 - A new road leading to Łódź via the new suburbs Bałuty built.
- 1863-1864 - January Uprising – few citizens took part in fighting and the city was taken twice by the uprising soldiers.
- 1866 - Chanoch Henich ha-Kohen Lewin settled down in Aleksandrów. Since then the town became a major Jewish religious centre.
- 1869 - Aleksandrów loses its city rights.
- 1888 - The first mechanical stocking factory built by Roman Paschke.
- 1903 - Voluntary Fire Brigade and "Lutnia" singer association formed.
- 1905 - Strikes of workers and teachers against Russification.
- 1910 - An electric tram line connects Aleksandrów with Łódź.
- 11 November 1918 - A group of firefighters disarms a German military outpost. The beginnings of independence of Poland.
- 1924 - Aleksandrów regains city rights and it is now called Łódzki.
- 1927 - A new school opened at Bankowa street.
- 7 September 1939 - German troops enter the city.
- 14 September 1939 - 5 Poles and 26 Jews executed by German soldiers.
- 9 November 1939 - Aleksandrów together with Łódź annexed to the 3rd Reich. The synagogue along with monuments of Kościuszko and Piłsudski destroyed, Polish and Jewish schools closed.
- 27 December 1939 - Jews moved to General Government where most of them died in German concentration camps.
- 1943 - Aleksandrów renamed to Wirkheim (home of the weavers).
- 17 January 1945 - Aleksandrów liberated by Soviet tank squads.
- 24 January 1945 - Józef Janiak became the first post-war mayor of Aleksandrów.
- 16 February 1945 - The first high school opened - State Coeducational Gymnasium. Currently the Mikołaj Kopernik High School.
- 1945-1947 - Germans forcibly moved to Germany. For the first time in its history Aleksandrów becomes a solely Polish city.
- 1951-1953 - Airport built.
- 1959 - Primary school no. 4 opened.
- 70's and 80's - Bratoszewskiego, Sikorskiego and Słoneczne estates built in eastern parts of the city.
- 1974 - A youth community center opened.
- 1979 - Friends of Aleksandrów Association founded.
- 1983 - The first Days of Aleksandrów held.
- 27 May 1990 - The first free elections to the city council won by Aleksandrowska Akcja Społeczna. Krzysztof Czajkowski becomes the mayor.
- 8 December 1991 - A local newspaper "Czterdzieści i cztery" issues its first edition.
- 1991-1995 - The tram connection to Łódź discontinued. Currently the cities are connected by bus line no. 78.
- 1999 - Aleksandrów Association of Entrepreneurs 2000 founded.
- 27 October 2000 - Local elections won by the Platforma Obywatelska. Jacek Lipiński becomes the mayor.
- 2006 - Elections won again by the Platforma Obywatelska. Jacek Lipiński elected for his second term.
Currently there are 2,623 registered companies in Aleksandrów.
- Textile industry - 38%
- Trade - 24%
- Vehicle mechanics and transport - 5%
The most important and oldest monuments of Aleksandrów are:
- St. Rafael and Michael Catholic church - built in 1816–1818, rebuilt three times (1922-1926 - two aisles added; 1933-1935 - two towers added; 1993 - added a second nave with its own altar). Under the church, lies buried Rafał Bratoszewski - founder of Aleksandrów.
- Evangelic church - built in 1828 by pastor Fryderyk Jerzy Tuve, never modified. Unfortunately it is currently in a very bad condition, but renovation is imminent.
- The City Shops "Jatki" - rebuilt in 1998, formerly a place for butchers and bakers to sell their goods; now part of the Town Hall.
- The Town Hall - built in 1824. Still serves its function today.
- The library - originally the house of a pastor built in 1848.
- The oldest grave - dated back from 1830, the place of burial for Fryderyk Jerzy Tuve. There is also a Jewish cemetery in the northern part of the town with graves of Hasidic Tzadiks.
- The city park - an English-styled garden founded by Rafał Bratoszewski in 1824.
- Weaver houses - long wooden houses of the first settlers from the first half of the 19th century.
Other monuments worth of mentioning are:
- Albert Stiller's factory and villa - built in 1908, one of the most modern factories of its times along with a stylish villa.
- Dormitory of Nicolaus Copernicus High School, a former mansion of Hasidic Tzadiks from Danziger dynasty, built in 1935.
- Towarzystwo Sportowe Sokół-Syguła Aleksandrów Łódzki. Founded in 1998. Currently there are soccer and traditional karate sections. Stanisław Syguła is the chairman and main sponsor of the club.
- MULKS Aleksandrów - established in 2004 - youth soccer
- MKS Aleksandrów - track and field athletics
- UKS Jedynka - volleyball
- Józef Jaworski track and field memorial - held annually since 1983
- "40 i cztery" (title is a reference to the tram line number 44 that connected Aleksandrów with Łódź) monthly bulletin issued by the local commune. It appears since 8 December 1991 formerly as a biweekly. Current editor-in-chief - Dorota Bełdowska-Zemła
- "Alternatywy 44" monthly bulletin issued by the Aleksandrów Association of Entrepreneurs 2000. Current editor-in-chief - Tomasz Dominowski.
- "Wiadomości aleksandrowskie" bulletin of St. by Rafael and Michael parish initiated by Rev. dr Norbert Rucki
- "Aleksandrów wczoraj i dziś" "Aleksandrów yesterday and today" A yearly publication appearing since 1983 on behalf of "Friends of Aleksandrów Association". Current editor-in-chief - Zenon Kozanecki.
- "Gazeta Matusiaka" - Independent newspaper issued by Grzegorz Matusiak in 1992–2004. Currently discontinued.
- "TELETOP TV"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aleksandrów Łódzki.|
- Articles on history of Aleksandrów
- Tourism in Aleksandrów
- Aleksandrów Łódzki Yizkor (Holocaust Memorial) Book (Yiddish and Hebrew)