Alexei Navalny

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Aleksei Navalny)
Jump to: navigation, search
Alexei Navalny
Alexey Navalny at Moscow rally 2013-06-12 1.JPG
Born Alexei Anatolievich Navalny
(1976-06-04) 4 June 1976 (age 38)
Butyn, Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Residence Moscow
Nationality Russian
Alma mater Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation
Yale University
Occupation Lawyer, activist, politician
Organization The Anti-Corruption Foundation
Known for Political and social activism, blogging
Political party
Progress Party[1]
Yabloko (2000–2007)
Movement Russian Opposition Coordination Council
various liberal, civic nationalist and national democrat organizations
Opponent(s) Vladimir Putin and United Russia party
Board member of
Aeroflot (2012–2013)
Religion Russian Orthodox
Spouse(s) Yuliya Navalnaya
Children two
Awards Yale World Fellow (2010)
Website
navalny.ru
recorded August 2013

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Alexei Anatolievich Navalny (Russian: Алексе́й Анато́льевич Нава́льный, Russian pronunciation: [ɐlʲɪkˈsʲej ɐnɐˈtolʲɪvʲɪtɕ nɐˈvalʲnɨj]), born 4 June 1976) is a Russian lawyer, political and financial activist,[1] and politician. Since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, and in the Russian and international media, as a critic of corruption and of Russian President Vladimir Putin. He has organized large-scale demonstrations promoting democracy and attacking political corruption, Putin, and Putin's political allies; and has run for political office on the same platform. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most."[2]

A self-described "nationalist democrat," Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the registered Russian political party Progress Party (Russian: Партия прогресса), formerly People's Alliance (Russian: Народный Альянс).[3][not in citation given] In September 2013 he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came in second, with 27% of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. His vote total was much higher than political analysts had expected, but Navalny and his allies insisted that the actual number was still higher, and that authorities had committed election fraud in order to prevent a runoff election from taking place.[4]

Navalny came to prominence via his blog, hosted on the website LiveJournal, which remains his primary method of communicating with the public. He has used his blog to attack Putin and his allies, to organize political demonstrations, to post documents showing Putin and his allies to be engaged in unsavory behavior, and most recently to promote his campaigns for office. He has also been active in other media: most notably, in a 2011 radio interview he described Russia's ruling party, United Russia, as a "party of crooks and thieves", which soon became a popular epithet.[5]

Navalny has been arrested numerous times by Russian authorities, most seriously in 2012, when federal authorities accused him of three instances of embezzlement and fraud, all of which he denied.[6] In July 2013 he was convicted of embezzlement and was sentenced to five years in a corrective labor colony.[7][8] Russia's Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner.[9] Navalny was released from prison a day after sentencing.[10] The prison fine was suspended in October 2013.[11] On 28 February 2014 he was placed under house arrest for two months and prohibited from communicating with anyone other than his family, after allegedly violating travel restrictions.[12]

Early life and career[edit]

Navalny is of Russian and Ukrainian descent.[13] His father Anatoliy Navalny is from Zalissia, a village in Ivankiv Raion, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny grew up in Obninsk about 100 km southwest of Moscow, but spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine.[13][14]

Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 1998 with a law degree. He then studied securities and exchanges at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation.[15][16]

In 2000, Navalny joined the Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko",[17] where he was a member of the Federal Political Council of the party. In 2002, he was elected to the regional council of the Moscow branch of Yabloko.[18]

Early activism[edit]

As acting Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of Yabloko, Navalny stated that the party supported the nationalist 2006 Russian March but that Yabloko condemned "any ethnic or racial hatred and any xenophobia" and called on police to oppose "any Fascist, Nazi, xenophobic manifestations".[19] The march was widely opposed by the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights[20] and the Russian Jewish community headed by rabbi Berel Lazar,[21] and participation from the Movement Against Illegal Immigration (the main organizer of the rally), the Eurasian Youth Union, the Communist Youth Vanguard, the National State Party of Russia, the National Patriotic Front "Memory", the "Truth" Community, the Russian National Union, the Russian Social Movement and the "Russian Order" Movement.[22]

In December 2007, a meeting was held by the Bureau of the "Yabloko" party, on the issue of Navalny's exclusion from the party, with demands of "the immediate resignation of party chairman and all his deputies, and the re-election of at least 70% of the Bureau."[23] Navalny was consequently expelled from Yabloko "for causing political damage to the party; in particular, for nationalist activities."[24]

Navalny is a minor stockholder in several major Russian state-related corporations and some of his activities are aimed at making the financial properties of these companies transparent. This is required by law, but there are allegations that some of the top managers of these companies are involved in thefts and are obscuring transparency.[25] Other activities deal with wrongdoings by Russian police, such as Sergei Magnitsky's case, improper usage of state's budget funds, quality of state services and so on.

In October 2010, Navalny was the decisive winner of virtual "Mayor of Moscow elections" held in the Russian Internet by Kommersant and Gazeta.ru. He received about 30,000 votes, or 45%, with the closest rival being "Against all candidates" with some 9,000 votes (14%), followed by Boris Nemtsov with 8,000 votes (12%) out of a total of about 67,000 votes.[26]

In November 2010, Navalny published[27] confidential documents about Transneft's auditing. According to Navalny's blog, about four billion dollars were stolen by Transneft's leaders during the construction of the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.[28][29]

In December 2010, Navalny announced the launch of the RosPil project, which seeks to bring to light corrupt practices in the government procurement process.[30] The project takes advantage of existing procurement regulation that requires all government requests for tender to be posted online. Information about winning bids must be posted online as well.

In February 2011, in an interview with the radio station finam.fm, Navalny called the main Russian party, United Russia, a "party of crooks and thieves".[5] In May 2011, the Russian government began criminal investigation into Navalny, widely described in Western media as "revenge", and by Navalny himself as "a fabrication by the security services".[5][31][32] Meanwhile, "crooks and thieves" became a popular nickname for the party.[33]

In May 2011 Navalny launched the RosYama project, which allowed individuals to report potholes and track government responses to complaints.[34]

In August 2011 Navalny publicized papers related to a scandalous real estate deal[35] between Hungarian and Russian governments.[36][37] According to the papers, Hungary sold a former embassy building in Moscow for US$21 million to an offshore company of V. Vekselberg, who immediately resold it to the Russian government for US$111 million. Irregularities in the paper trail implied a collusion. Three Hungarian officials responsible for the deal were detained in February 2011.[38] It is unclear whether any official investigation was conducted on the Russian side.

Involvement in 2011 Russian legislative election[edit]

Alexei Navalny at the courthouse, 6 December 2011

In December 2011, after parliamentary elections and accusations of electoral fraud,[39] some 6,000 gathered in Moscow to protest the fraud and some 300 were arrested including Navalny. After a period of uncertainty, Navalny was produced at court and thereafter sentenced to the maximum 15 days "for defying a government official". Alexei Venediktov called the arrest "a political mistake: jailing Navalny transforms him from an online leader into an offline one."[40] Navalny was kept in the same prison as several other activists, including Ilya Yashin and Sergei Udaltsov, the unofficial leader of the Vanguard of Red Youth, a radical Russian communist youth group. Udaltsov has gone on hunger strike to protest against the conditions.[41]

Navalny was arrested 5 December 2011, convicted and sentenced to 15 days in jail. Since his arrest, his blog has become available in English.[42] On 7 December, President Dmitry Medvedev's official Twitter account retweeted a statement by United Russia member Konstantin Rykov which claimed that "a person who writes in their blog the words 'party of crooks and thieves' is a stupid, c*cksucking sheep". This retweet was quickly deleted and described as a mistake by the Kremlin, but garnered wide attention in the Russian blogosphere.[43]

In a profile published the day after his release, the BBC described Navalny as "arguably the only major opposition figure to emerge in Russia in the past five years."[44]

Involvement in 2012 Russian presidential election[edit]

On his release on 20 December 2011, Navalny called on Russians to unite against Putin, who Navalny said would try to snatch victory in 4 March 2012 presidential election.[45]

Navalny told reporters on his release that it would be senseless for him to run in the presidential elections because the Kremlin would not allow them to be fair. But he said that if free elections were held, he would "be ready" to run.[45] He then on 24 December helped lead a demonstration much larger than the post-election one (50,000 strong, in one Western-media account), telling the "wildly cheering crowd": "I see enough people to take the Kremlin right now."[46]

Post-2012-election government battles[edit]

In March, after Putin was elected president, Navalny helped lead an anti-Putin rally in Moscow's Pushkin Square, attended by between 14,000 and 20,000 people. After the rally, Navalny was detained by authorities for several hours, then released.[47]

On 8 May, the day after Putin was inaugurated, Navalny and another opposition leader, Sergei Udaltsov, were arrested after an anti-Putin rally at Clean Ponds, and were each given 15-day jail sentences.[48] In response, Amnesty International designated the two men prisoners of conscience.[49] On 11 June 2012, Moscow prosecutors conducted a 12-hour search of Navalny's home, office and a search of the apartment of one of Navalny's relatives. The searches were done as part of a broader investigation into the clashes between opposition activists and riot police which happened on the 6 May.[50] Soon afterward, some of Navalny's personal emails were posted online by a pro-government blogger.[51]

In May 2012, Navalny accused Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov of corruption, stating that companies owned by Roman Abramovich and Alisher Usmanov had transferred tens of millions of US dollars to Shuvalov's company, allowing Shuvalov to share in the profit from Usmanov's purchase of the British steel company Corus.[52][53] Navalny posted scans of documents to his blog showing the money transfers.[53] Usmanov and Shuvalov stated the documents Navalny had posted were legitimate, but that the transaction had not represented a violation of Russian law. Shuvalov stated, "I unswervingly followed the rules and principles of conflict of interest. For a lawyer, this is sacred."[52]

On 4 June 2012, Navalny was ordered by Moscow's Lyublinsky District Court to pay 30,000 rubles (about US$900) as compensation for "moral harm" to United Russia State Duma Deputy Vladimir Svirid, after Svirid filed charges against Navalny for comments he made in an article written for Esquire magazine about the United Russia party: "In United Russia, there are people I come across that I generally like. But if you have joined United Russia, you are still a thief. And if you are not a thief, then you are a crook, because you use your name to cover the rest of the thieves and crooks." Svirid had originally sought one million rubles in the case.[54]

In July 2012, Navalny posted documents on his blog allegedly showing that Alexander Bastrykin, head of the Investigative Committee of Russia (SK) and a Putin ally, owned an undeclared business in the Czech Republic. The posting was described by the Financial Times as Navalny's "answering shot" for having had his emails leaked during his arrest in the previous month.[51]

2012 embezzlement and fraud charges[edit]

On 30 July 2012, the Investigative Committee charged Navalny with embezzlement. The committee stated that he had conspired to steal timber from KirovLes, a state-owned company in Kirov Oblast in 2009, while acting as an adviser to Kirov's governor Nikita Belykh.[52][55] Investigators had closed a previous probe into the claims for lack of evidence.[56] Navalny was released on his own recognizance but instructed not to leave Moscow.[52]

Navalny described the charges as "weird" and unfounded.[56] He stated that authorities "are doing it to watch the reaction of the protest movement and of Western public opinion ... So far they consider both of these things acceptable and so they are continuing along this line."[52] His supporters protested before the SK offices.[55]

Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt tweeted that "We should be concerned with attempts in Russia to silence fierce opposition activist Alexei Navalny."[55] The New York Times called it "the Kremlin's most direct measure to date against a leader of the protest movement that erupted here in December" and suggested that "the Kremlin's eagerness to limit Mr. Navalny's impact now outweighs the risk of a political backlash".[52] Al Jazeera described the charge as part of a broader trend of cracking down on dissent, connecting it to a recent bill in the Russian parliament to substantially increase fines on unauthorized protests and the trial of three members of the feminist punk-rock collective Pussy Riot.[56]

In late December 2012, Russia's federal Investigative Committee asserted that Allekt, an advertising company headed by Navalny, defrauded the Union of the Right Forces (SPS) political party in 2007 by taking $3.2m (ruble equivalent) payment for advertising and failing to honor its contract. If charged and convicted, Navalny could be jailed for up to 10 years. "Nothing of the sort happened – he committed no robbery", Leonid Gozman, a former SPS official, was quoted as saying. Earlier in December, "the Investigative Committee charged ... Navalny and his brother Oleg with embezzling 55m roubles [US$1.76m] in 2008–11 while working in a postal business". Navalny, who denied the allegations in the two previous cases, sought to laugh off news of the third inquiry with a tweet stating "Fiddlesticks ...".[6]

In April 2013, Loeb&Loeb LLP issued "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny", a paper detailing Investigative Committee accusations.[57] The paper concludes that "the Kremlin has reverted to misuse of the Russian legal system to harass, isolate and attempt to silence political opponents".

Conviction[edit]

The KirovLes trial commenced in the city of Kirov on 17 April 2013.[58] On 18 July 2013, Navalny was sentenced to five years in jail for embezzlement.[7] Navalny was found guilty in misappropriating about 16 million rubles[59] (US$500,000) worth of lumber from a state-owned company.[60] The sentence read by the judge Sergey Blinov was textually the same as the request of the prosecutor, with the only exception that Navalny was given five years, and the prosecution requested six years.[61]

Reaction[edit]

Navalny's wife Yulia Navalnaya stated that "if someone hopes Alexei's investigations will cease, that's not the case ... We will win."[62]

Navalny's arrest was criticized by a number of prominent Russians, including the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, who called it "proof that we do not have independent courts",[63] and former Finance Minister and close Putin ally Aleksei Kudrin, who stated that it was "looking less like a punishment than an attempt to isolate him from social life and the electoral process."[62][64] It was also criticized by novelist Boris Akunin[64] and jailed Russian oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who called it similar to the treatment of political opponents during the Soviet era.[62]

Other prominent Russians had different reactions: Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the nationalist LDPR, called the verdict "a direct warning to our 'fifth column'" and continued "This will be the fate of everyone who is connected with the West and works against Russia."[62] Duma Vice-Speaker Igor Lebedev stated that he didn't understand the "fuss about an ordinary case". He added that "If you're guilty before the law, then whoever you were – a janitor, a homeless man or a president – you have to answer for your crimes in full accordance with the Criminal Code."[65]

A variety of countries and international organizations condemned the verdict. United States Department of State Deputy Spokesperson Marie Harf stated that the US was "very disappointed by the conviction and sentencing of opposition leader Aleksey Navalniy."[66] The US Ambassador to Russia, Michael McFaul, followed up by stating that the trial had "apparent political motivations".[62] A spokesperson for European Union High Representative Catherine Ashton said that the outcome of the trial "raises serious questions as to the state of the rule of law in Russia."[62][67]

Release[edit]

Alexei Navalny and his wife Yuliya after release on 19 July 2013

In the evening after the sentencing the Prosecutor's Office appealed the sentence in the part which prescribed Navalny and Ofitserov to be jailed, arguing that until the higher court affirmed the sentence, the sentence is not valid. Next morning, the appeal was granted. Navalny and Ofitserov were released on 19 July 2013 awaiting the hearings of the higher court.[68] The prosecutor's request decision was described "unprecedented" by experts.[69]

Probation[edit]

The prison sentence was suspended by a court in Kirov in 16 October 2013, still being a burden for his political future.[11]

2013 mayoral candidacy[edit]

On 17 July 2013, the day before he was sentenced, Navalny was registered as a candidate (one of six) for the 2013 Moscow mayoral election.[70] The election was Moscow's first since 2004, as a result of shifting rules in which the mayor of Moscow became directly appointed by the Kremlin, then went back to being a democratically elected position. Current mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee, was the frontrunner throughout the election.[4]

Several hours after his sentencing, he pulled out of the race and called for a boycott of the election.[71] However, upon his return to Moscow after being freed pending an appeal, he vowed to stay in the race.[72] It is speculated that his release was ordered by the Kremlin in order to make the mayoral election, and Sobyanin, appear more legitimate.[4]

Navalny focused his campaign not on Sobyanin or any of the other candidates, but on criticizing Vladimir Putin directly.[4] His campaign received very little television coverage, but nonetheless achieved a high profile through an unprecedently large campaign organization that involved around 20,000 volunteers who passed out leaflets and hung banners, as well as several campaign rallies a day around the city.[73] Sobyanin did not campaign directly.[73]

Navalny received 27.24% of the vote, or the second highest number, with Sobyanin receiving 51.37% of the vote. Exit polls showed that Navalny fared better in the center and southwest of Moscow, which have higher income and education levels.[4] A runoff election was not held since Sobyanin received more than 50% of the vote. Navalny denounced the tally, saying it involved "clear falsifications", and threatened to rally his followers if a runoff election was not held.[74] His supporters cited election irregularities such as a longer-than-expected vote tallying period.[4]

Post-mayoral-election activism[edit]

Following the alleged kidnapping and torture of opposition activist Leonid Razvozzhayev from Kiev, Ukraine, Navalny was arrested along with Sergei Udaltsov and Ilya Yashin while attempting to join a Moscow protest on Razvozzhayev's behalf on 27 October. The three were charged with violating public order, for which they could be fined up to 30,000 rubles (US$900) or given 50 hours of community service.[75]

Presidential candidacy[edit]

On 4 April 2013, Navalny announced his intention to run for the presidency.[76] Navalny described his presidential program as "not to lie and not to steal".[77]

According to polls conducted by the Levada Center, Navalny's recognition among the Russian population stood at 37% as of April 2013.[78] Out of those who recognize Navalny, 14% would either "definitely" or "probably" support his presidential run.[79]

Russian nationalism[edit]

Alexei Navalny stated in 2011 that he considers himself a "nationalist democrat."[80] International media have often commented on his ambiguous but non-condemnatory stance toward ethnic Russian nationalism.[81][82] The BBC noted in a profile of Navalny that his endorsement of a political campaign called "Stop Feeding the Caucasus" and his willingness to speak at ultra-nationalist events "have caused concern among liberals." He also has been a co-organizer of the "Russian March,"[83] which Radio Free Europe describes as "a parade uniting Russian nationalist groups of all stripes,"[84] and has appeared as a speaker alongside Russian nationalists.[85]

Navalny is agitating on behalf of aggressive anti-immigration policies.[86]

Navalny once compared dark-skinned Caucasus militants with cockroaches. Cockroaches can be killed with a slipper, he said, but as for humans, "I recommend a pistol."[87][88] Navalny's defenders suggested the comment was simply a joke. It has also been debated whether or not Navalny's ethnic nationalism is a populist strategy or arises from his real convictions.[89]

Early in 2012 Navalny stated on Ukrainian TV that "Russian foreign policy should be maximally directed at integration with Ukraine and Belarus… In fact, we're one nation. We should enhance integration."[90] During the same broadcast Navalny said that he did not intend "to prove that the Ukrainian nation doesn't exist. God willing, it does." He added, "No one wants to make an attempt to limit Ukraine's sovereignty".[90] In October 2014 Navalny stated "I don't see any kind of difference at all between Russians and Ukrainians", he admitted that his views might provoke "horrible indignation" in Ukraine.[91]

In March 2014, Navalny declared that he doesn't support Russia's annexation of Crimea. According to The Moscow Times, "Navalny suggested that Kiev should grant Crimea greater autonomy while remaining part of Ukraine, guarantee the right to speak Russian in Ukraine, keep Ukraine out of NATO, and let the Russian Black Sea fleet remain in the peninsula free of charge."[92] In October 2014 Navalny stated in an interview by Ekho Moskvy that he would not return Crimea to Ukraine if he were to become the president of Russia but that "a normal referendum" should be held in Crimea to decide what country the peninsula belongs to.[93]

Family[edit]

Navalny is married and has two children.[44]

Awards and honours[edit]

Navalny was named "Person of the Year 2009" by Russian business newspaper Vedomosti.[94]

Navalny was a World Fellow at Yale University's World Fellows Program, aimed at "creating a global network of emerging leaders and to broaden international understanding" in 2010.[95]

In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine named Navalny to the FP Top 100 Global Thinkers, along with Daniel Domscheit-Berg and Sami Ben Gharbia of Tunisia, for "shaping the new world of government transparency".[96] FP picked him again in 2012.[97] He was listed by Time magazine in 2012 as one of the world's 100 most influential people, the only Russian on the list.[98] In 2013, Navalny came in at No. 48 among "world thinkers" in an online poll by the UK magazine Prospect.[99]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carl Schreck (9 March 2010). "Russia's Erin Brockovich: Taking On Corporate Greed". Time. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  2. ^ Matthew Kaminski (3 March 2012). "The Man Vladimir Putin Fears Most (the weekend interview)". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Washington Post; 2011
  4. ^ a b c d e f Englund, Will (9 September 2013). "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny has strong showing in Moscow mayoral race, despite loss". The Washington Post. 
  5. ^ a b c Tom Parfitt (10 May 2011). "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny faces criminal investigation". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Russian opposition leader Navalny faces third inquiry". BBC News. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. , BBC, 24 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b Brumfield, Ben; Phil Black (18 July 2013). "Report: Stark Putin critic Navalny hit with criminal conviction". CNN. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  8. ^ New York Times: Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader
  9. ^ "Радио ЭХО Москвы :: Новости / Правозащитный центр Мемориал признал Алексея Навального политическим заключенным". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  10. ^ Associated Press. "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has been released from custody 1 day after sentencing". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 July 2013. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b Russian Opposition Leader Is Spared Jail. New York Times 16th October 2013
  12. ^ "Court puts Russian opposition leader under house arrest". Moscow News.Net. 28 February 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Sergei Hrabovsky. Олексій Навальний як дзеркало російської революції (in Ukrainian). day.kiev.ua. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  14. ^ АЛЕКСЕЙ НАВАЛЬНЫЙ (in Russian). esquire.ru. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Alexei Navalny". The Moscow Times. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Guy Faulconbridge (11 December 2011). "NEWSMAKER-Protests pitch Russian blogger against Putin". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  17. ^ "Navalny, Alexey Anatolich" (in Russian). Kommersant. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  18. ^ "About Navalny" (in Russian). navalny.ru. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  19. ^ "SvobodaNews.ru Московское "Яблоко" поддержало проведение "Русского марша" deadurl=no".  Argued as following: "It is clearly stated in the preamble of our declaration that the Yabloko Party thoroughly and sharply opposes any national and racial discord and any xenophobia. However in this case, when we know... that the Constitution guarantees to us the right to gather peacefully and without a weapon, we see that in these conditions the prohibition of the Russian March as it was announced, provokes the organisers to some activities which could end not so good. Thus we appeal to the Moscow city administration... for permission..."
  20. ^ "Human rights activist protests far-right march in Moscow". En.rian.ru. 17 October 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  21. ^ "Russian chief rabbi supports ban on November 4 March". Interfax-religion.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  22. ^ "РИА Новости – Справки – "Русский марш". События прошлого года". Rian.ru. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  23. ^ "Navalny, Alexey". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  24. ^ Ilya Azarov (15 December 2007). "Яблоко" откатилось (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Nataliya Vasilyeva (1 April 2010). "Activist presses Russian corporations for openness". Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Выборы мэра Москвы. Gazeta.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  27. ^ Как пилят в Транснефти (in Russian). LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  28. ^ "Russia checks claims of $4bn oil pipeline scam". BBC News. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  29. ^ Soldatkin, Vladimir (14 January 2011). "Russia's Transneft denies $4 bln theft". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  30. ^ Alexey Navalny (29 December 2010). "RosPil". Navalny Live Journal Blog (in Russian deadurl=no). Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  31. ^ Catherine Belton (10 May 2011). "Russia Targets Anti-Graft Blogger". The Financial Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  32. ^ Alexander Bratersky (11 May 2011). "Navalny Targeted in Fraud Inquiry". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  33. ^ Daniel Sandford (30 November 2011). "Russians tire of corruption spectacle". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  34. ^ Alexey Navalny (30 May 2011). "RosYama" (in Russian). Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  35. ^ Bálint Ablonczy (23 July 2012). "It's ugly, but it was ours". Hetivalasz. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  36. ^ Инновационные технологии: как это работает на самом деле (in Russian). Navalny.Live Journal. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  37. ^ Andy Potts (21 February 2011). "Vekselberg faces questions over Hungarian property fraud". The Moscow News. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  38. ^ "Hungary: detentions linked to the sale of property in Moscow". OSW. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  39. ^ Julia Ioffe (5 December 2011). "Russian Elections: Faking It". The New Yorker. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  40. ^ Julia Ioffe (6 December 2011). "Putin's Big Mistake?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  41. ^ Tom Parfitt (17 December 2011). "Vladimir Putin's persecution campaign targets protest couple". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  42. ^ "The Blog on Navalny in English". LiveJournal. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  43. ^ Miriam Elder (7 December 2011). "Medvedev 'tweet' sends the Russian blogosphere into a frenzy". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  44. ^ a b Stephen Ennis (21 December 2011). "Profile: Russian blogger Alexei Navalny". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  45. ^ a b Guy Faulconbridge (20 December 2011). "Navalny challenges Putin after leaving Russian jail". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  46. ^ Fred Weir (24 December 2011). "Huge protest demanding fair Russian elections hits Moscow". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  47. ^ "Russia election: Police arrest 550 at city protests". BBC News. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  48. ^ "Police keep anti-Putin protesters on the run". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  49. ^ "Amnesty Calls Navalny, Udaltsov 'Prisoners of Conscience'". Radio Free Europe. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  50. ^ "Homes of Russian opposition figures searched ahead of rally deadurl=no". . RT.com. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  51. ^ a b Charles Clover (26 July 2012). "Blogger strikes at Putin with data release". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f Andrew E. Kramer (30 March 2012). "Activist Presses for Inquiry into Senior Putin Deputy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  53. ^ a b "Russian whistleblower accuses Putin's investment czar of multimillion dollar corruption". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  54. ^ "Navalny Must Pay for 'Crooks and Thieves' Comment deadurl=no".  The Moscow Times. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  55. ^ a b c "Russian blogger Navalny charged with embezzlement". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  56. ^ a b c "Putin critic Navalny charged with theft". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  57. ^ "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  58. ^ Daniel Sandford (17 April 2013). "BBC News – Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny goes on trial". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  59. ^ Elder, Miriam (18 July 2013). "Russia: Alexei Navalny found guilty of embezzlement". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  60. ^ "Outspoken Putin critic Alexei Navalny hit with prison sentence". CNN. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  61. ^ Воронин, Николай (18 July 2013). Как судили Навального: репортаж из зала суда (in Russian). BBC. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  62. ^ a b c d e f "Reaction to Russia's Jailing of Alexei Navalny". Wall Street Journal. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  63. ^ "Mikhail Gorbachev reacts to the sentencing of Alexey Navalny". The Gorbachev Foundation. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  64. ^ a b Herszenhorn, David M. (18 July 2013). "Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader". New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  65. ^ "Navalny verdict is a warning to the fifth column". Pravda. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  66. ^ "On the Conviction and Sentencing of Alexey Navalniy and Pyotr Ofitserov". U.S. State Department. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  67. ^ "Statement by the Spokesperson of High Representative Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of Alexey Navalny and Pyotr Ofitserov". Council of the European Union. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  68. ^ "Alexei Navalny freed following anti-Putin protests in Moscow – video". The Guardian (London). 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  69. ^ "Alexei Navalny Freed Pending Appeal". Wall Street Journal. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  70. ^ Smolchenko, Anna (17 July 2013). "Navalny Moscow mayoral bid accepted ahead of verdict". Fox News. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  71. ^ "Navalny pulls out of Moscow poll, calls for boycott". Agence France-Presse. 
  72. ^ "Freed Kremlin critic arrives in Moscow". Al-Jazeera. 
  73. ^ a b Laura Mills and Lynn Berry (8 September 2013). "Strong Showing for Navalny in Moscow Mayoral Race". Associated Press. 
  74. ^ Alexei Navalny denounces 'clear falsifications' in tighter than expected Moscow mayoral election, Ronald Oliphant, The Daily Telegraph, 9 September 2013
  75. ^ Maria Tsvetkova and Gleb Bryanski (27 October 2012). "Russia activists detained after opposition council meets". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  76. ^ "Anti-Kremlin Figure Navalny Sets Sights on Presidency". RIA Novosti. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  77. ^ "Opposition blogger Navalny voices presidential ambitions amid dwindling support". RT. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  78. ^ Volkov, Dennis (5 April 2013). "Analysis of Navalny's Ratings". Levada Center. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  79. ^ Stepan Kravchenko (5 April 2013). "Putin, Allies Threatened With Jail as Navalny to Seek Presidency". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  80. ^ The birth of Russian citizenry, The Economist, 2011
  81. ^ Did Russian Opposition Leader Alexey Navalny Just Endorse A Race Riot?, by Mark Adomanis, Forbes, 15 July 2013
  82. ^ So where’s the change in Russia?, by Jean Radvanyi, Le Monde Diplomatique, April 2012
  83. ^ http://www.ng.ru/regions/2011-10-24/1_rus_marsh.html
  84. ^ Russia's Aleksei Navalny: Hope Of The Nation – Or The Nationalists?, by Robert Coalson, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 28 July 2013
  85. ^ Rousing Russia With a Phrase
  86. ^ http://www.forbes.com/sites/markadomanis/2014/08/04/3-things-barack-obama-got-wrong-about-russia/
  87. ^ Barry, Ellen (9 December 2011). "Rousing Russia With a Phrase". New York Times. 
  88. ^ Hitchens, Peter (25 February 2012). "If not Putin, who? It's because I love my own country that I can see the point of this sinister tyrant who so ruthlessly stands up for Russia". Daily Mail (London). 
  89. ^ [The Strange alliance of Democrats and nationalists; Nicu Popescu; Journal of Democracy, DOI: 10.1353/jod.2012.0046]
  90. ^ a b Ukraine in “Big-Time Politics” of Alexey Navalny by Krzysztof Nieczypor, Eastbook.eu (25 February 2012)<bt>Navalny: Integration with Belarus – Main Task for Russia, Telegraf.by (13 February 2012)
  91. ^ Navalny Wouldn't Return Crimea, Considers Immigration Bigger Issue Than Ukraine
  92. ^ "Navalny Defies House Arrest Terms in Online Condemnation of Russia's Actions in Ukraine". The Moscow Times. March 21, 2014.
  93. ^ Navalny Wouldn't Return Crimea, Considers Immigration Bigger Issue Than Ukraine
  94. ^ Персоны года – 2009: Частное лицо года. Vedomosti (in Russian). 30 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  95. ^ "The World Fellows: Alexey Navalny". Yale University. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  96. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  97. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  98. ^ Garry Kasparov (18 April 2012). "Alexei Navalny". Time. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  99. ^ "The results of Prospect's world thinkers poll". Prospect. April 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 

External links[edit]

articles