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Aleksey Nikitich Trubetskoy (Russian: Алексей Никитич Трубецкой, Aleksy Nikitycz Trubecki; Ukrainian: Олексій Микитович Трубецькой; 17 March 1600? – 1680) was the last Prince of Trubetsk (under authority of the Republic of Both Nations) 1634–1645, and (under authority of Muscovian Tsardom; державец Трубческого) 17 March 1660 – June 1672, the godfather of Peter I of Russia.
Under Tsar Michael's rule Aleksey Trubetskoy was in disfavour with Russia's factual ruler Patriarch Filaret and was appointed to govern distant towns of Tobolsk and Astrakhan. But the situation changed after Michael's death in 1645 and Alexis I's succession to the throne, when Trubetskoy's close friend Boris Morozov became a head of government. In 1646 Trubetskoy was appointed a commander of the Tsar's personal Guard regiment.
In 1654 Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy on the side of Alexis I of Russia led the southern flank of the Muscovite army from Bryansk to Ukraine. The territory between the Dniepr and Berezyna was overrun quickly, with Aleksey Trubetskoy taking Mścisław and Rosławl. In 1654 the former Principality of Trubetsk was finally conquered by Aleksey Trubetskoy, Prince of Trubetsk himself, as a result of the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667). In 1656 the second Muscovian army advanced in the north of Swedish Livonia and besieged Tartu. In 1659 a Muscovite army, led by Aleksey Trubetskoy, crossed into Ukraine and was partly defeated by a Ruthenian–Tatar army led by Ivan Vyhovsky in the Battle of Konotop. In 1659 he negotiated the Second Treaty of Pereiaslav with Yurii Khmelnytsky. In 1659 Aleksey Trubetskoy together with Ivan Sirko, who went to Zaporozhian Sich in 1654, and became a polkovnyk (colonel), fought against the Crimean Khanate.
Trubetskoy was married to Ekaterina Pushkina (died 1669), a sister of Boyar Boris Pushkin, a prominent statesman. He died childless. His mother was Eudokia Trubetska and his father was Nikita Trubetskoy (16th century – January 1608). He had brothers Wigund-Jeronym Trubetsky and Fyodor Trubetskoy.