Alessandria

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Alessandria
Comune
Comune di Alessandria
Alessandria Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo
Alessandria Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo
Flag of Alessandria
Flag
Coat of arms of Alessandria
Coat of arms
Alessandria is located in Italy
Alessandria
Alessandria
Location of Alessandria in Italy
Coordinates: 44°55′N 08°37′E / 44.917°N 8.617°E / 44.917; 8.617Coordinates: 44°55′N 08°37′E / 44.917°N 8.617°E / 44.917; 8.617
Country Italy
Region Piedmont
Province Alessandria (AL)
Frazioni Spinetta Marengo, Castelceriolo, Lobbi, San Giuliano Nuovo, San Giuliano Vecchio, Mandrogne, Cascinagrossa, Litta Parodi, Valle San Bartolomeo, San Michele
Government
 • Mayor Maria Rita Rossa (PD)
Area
 • Total 204 km2 (79 sq mi)
Elevation 95 m (312 ft)
Population (31 August 2009)
 • Total 93,922
 • Density 460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Demonym Alessandrini, Mandrogni
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 15121-15122
Dialing code 0131
Patron saint San Baudolino
Saint day November 10
Website Official website

Alessandria About this sound listen  (Lissandria in Piedmontese) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria. The city is sited on the alluvial plain between the Tanaro and the Bormida rivers, about 90 kilometres (56 miles) southeast of Turin.

Alessandria is also a major railway hub.

History[edit]

Alessandria was founded in 1168 with a charter as a free commune; it was sited upon a preexisting urban nucleus, to serve as a stronghold for the Lombard League, defending the traditional liberties of the communes of northern Italy against the Imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa. Alessandria stood in the territories of the marchese of Montferrat, a staunch ally of the Emperor, with a name assumed in 1168 to honor the Emperor's opponent, Pope Alexander III. In 1174–75 the fortress was sorely tested by Imperial siege and stood fast. A legend (related in Umberto Eco's book Baudolino, and which recalls one concerning Bishop Herculanus’ successful defense of Perugia several centuries earlier) says it was saved by a quick-witted peasant, Gagliaudo: he fed his cow with the last grain remaining within the city, then took it outside the city walls until he reached the Imperial camp. Here he was captured, and his cow cut open to be cooked: when the Imperials found the cow's stomach filled with grain, Gagliaudo was asked the reason to waste such a rich meal. He answered that he was forced to feed his cow with grain because there was such a lot of it, and no room to place it within the city. The Emperor, fearing that the siege would last too long, left Alessandria free. (Malaria was probably the real cause of his departure.) A statue of Gagliaudo can be found on the left corner of the city cathedral.

Alessandria entered into jealous conflicts with the older communes of the region, in particular with Asti.[1]

In 1348 Alessandria fell into the hands of the Visconti and passed with their possessions to the Sforza, following the career of Milan, until 1707, when it was ceded to the House of Savoy and henceforth formed part of Piedmont. The new domination was evidenced by the construction of a new big Cittadella on the left side of the river Tanaro, across from the city.

With Napoleon's success at the Battle of Marengo (1800), Alessandria fell to France and became the capital of the Napoleonic Département of Marengo. During this period another substantial fort was built to the north of the city containing impressive and substantial barracks which are still used as a military headquarters and stores (2006). The remains of a second fort to the south of the city (Cristo quarter) have been sliced in two by a railway (Forte ferrovia); a third one still remains in the middle of the same quarter (Forte Acqui).

From 1814 Alessandria was Savoyard territory once more, part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. During the years of the Risorgimento, Alessandria was an active center of the liberals.

In a suburb, Spinetta Marengo, the Battle of Marengo is reenacted annually, on June 14.

Alessandria was the first capital of an Italian province to be governed by a Socialist: the clockmaker Paolo Sacco was elected mayor on July 25, 1899.

Alessandria was a tactical military target during World War II and was subjected to intense Allied bombing, the most serious being the raids of April 30, 1944, with 238 dead and hundreds wounded, and April 5, 1945, with 160 deaths, among them 60 children from the children's asylum in Via Gagliaudo. On end of that month the city was liberated from the German occupation (1943–1945) by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force.

On November 6, 1994 the Tanaro flooded a good part of the city, causing major damage, especially in the Orti quarter.

Jewish history[edit]

The first known Jews in Alessandria, named Abraham (son of Joseph Vitale de Sacredoti Cohen) opened a loan bank in or about 1490.[2] In 1590, the Jews were expelled from the Duchy of Milan, and one of Abraham's descendants travelled to Madrid, which ruled the Duchy, and was permitted to stay in the town due to a large sum owed him by the government. Of the 230 Jews living in the city in 1684, 170 were members of the Vitale family. The Jewish Ghetto was established in 1724. Between 1796 to 1814, among the rest of Italian Jewry, the city Jewish congregation was emancipated, under French influence. According to Benito Mussolini's census in 1938, the town had 101 Jews.[2] On December 13, 1943, The synagogue on Via Milano was attacked by supporters of the German-imposed Italian social Republic. Books and manuscripts were taken out of the synagogue and were set on fire at Piazza Rattazzi. In total, 48 Jews were sent from the province of Alessandria to death, most of them in Auschwitz.[2] List of Alessandria Rabbis.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Alessandria is located in a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), the city has moderately cold winters and hot, sultry summers. Rainfall is moderate, with two minimums (summer and winter) and two maximums in autumn and spring

Climate data for Alessandria
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
6.6
(43.9)
12.6
(54.6)
17.7
(63.8)
22.4
(72.3)
26.7
(80.1)
29.5
(85.1)
28.6
(83.5)
24.1
(75.4)
16.9
(62.5)
9.4
(48.9)
4.4
(40.0)
16.8
(62.3)
Average low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−0.6
(31.0)
3.7
(38.6)
8
(46.4)
12.4
(54.3)
16.2
(61.1)
18.5
(65.3)
17.9
(64.2)
14.5
(58.1)
9.3
(48.7)
3.9
(39.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
8.4
(47.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
37.1
(1.46)
54.1
(2.13)
64
(2.52)
59.9
(2.36)
47
(1.85)
32
(1.26)
36.1
(1.42)
42.9
(1.69)
74.2
(2.92)
72.1
(2.84)
46
(1.81)
603.3
(23.75)
Source: Intellicast[3]

Main sights[edit]

Monuments[edit]

  • Citadella Militare (18th century)
  • The church of Santa Maria di Castello (14th and 15th century)
  • The church of Santa Maria del Carmine (15th century)
  • Palazzo Ghilini (1733)
  • Università del Piemonte Orientale

Museums[edit]

  • The Marengo Battle Museum
  • Antiquarium Forum Fulvii
  • Sale d'arte
  • I percorsi del Museo Civico
  • Museo del Fiume
  • Museo di Scienze Naturali e Planetario
  • Museo Etnografico "C'era una volta"
  • Museo del Cappello Borsalino

Sistema dei musei civici

Events[edit]

Transport[edit]

Alessandria railway station, opened in 1850, forms part of the Turin–Genoa railway. It is also a junction for six other lines, to Piacenza, Novara, Pavia, Cavallermaggiore, Ovada and San Giuseppe di Cairo, respectively.

People born in Alessandria[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Alessandria is twinned with:

See also[edit]

  • Villa del Foro, a western suburb of the town which was the site of a Roman settlement.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alessandria – LoveToKnow 1911". www.1911encyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  2. ^ a b c Alessandria
  3. ^ "Alessandria historic weather averages". The Casaccia Center of Enea. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 

External links[edit]