Alessandro Mussolini

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Alessandro Mussolini.

Alessandro Mussolini (11 November 1854 — 19 November 1910) was the father of Italian Fascist founder and leader Benito Mussolini. He was an Italian revolutionary socialist activist with Italian nationalist sympathies.[1] Mussolini was a blacksmith by profession.[2] Mussolini was married to Rosa Maltoni, a schoolteacher, who became the mother of Benito Mussolini.[2] Mussolini exercised considerable influence over his son Benito's early political beliefs, even naming his son Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini after three socialist leaders: Benito Juárez, Amilcare Cipriani, and Andrea Costa.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Rosa Maltoni.

On January 25, 1882, Mussolini married Rosa Maltoni, a schoolteacher and devoted Roman Catholic.[3] Unlike his wife, Mussolini did not believe in God and hated the Roman Catholic Church, but this did not influence their relationship.[4] Maltoni's father looked down upon her decision to marry Mussolini and did not approve of the marriage.[4]

In 1883, Maltoni gave birth to their first son, Benito Mussolini. Benito helped his father at the forge where Alessandro Mussolini worked as a blacksmith.[3] Mussolini and his son Benito were close, he taught his son about revolutionary leaders he admired such as Karl Marx.[5]

Mussolini experienced a number of personal troubles; he had difficulty in finding employment and became an alcoholic.[3]

Political activism and views[edit]

Mussolini entered politics in 1873 at the age of nineteen as a revolutionary socialist militant.[1] In 1874, Mussolini took part in political disturbances in Predappio, Italy.[1] Mussolini became a member of local government and was known by authorities for controversy and political violence against opponents.[2] Mussolini was ill-tempered towards his opponents and in 1878, police warned Mussolini to cease threatening his opponents with the destruction of their property.[6] He was arrested in 1878 on the suspicion of taking part in revolutionary activities and remained under house arrest until authorities released him in 1882 so that he could attend his marriage to Rosa Maltoni.[3]

Mussolini believed that the government should control the mode of production, that working conditions needed to be improved, and supported the creation of a society run by the working-class.[2]

Mussolini held Italian nationalist sentiments and idolized Italian nationalist figures with socialist or humanist tendencies such as Carlo Pisacane, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Giuseppe Garibaldi.[1] Alessandro Mussolini's political outlook combined the views of anarchist figures like Carlo Cafiero and Mikhail Bakunin, the military authoritarianism of Garibaldi, and the nationalism of Mazzini.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Gregor, Anthony James. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, US; London, England, UK: University of California Press, 1979. Pp. 29
  2. ^ a b c d Roberts, Jeremy. Benito Mussolini. A & E; Twenty-First Century Books, 2006. Pp. 10.
  3. ^ a b c d Haugen, Brenda. Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapolis, Minnesota, US: Compass Point Books, 2007. Pp. 15.
  4. ^ a b Haugen, Brenda. Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapolis, Minnesota, US: Compass Point Books, 2007. Pp. 16.
  5. ^ Haugen, Brenda. Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapolis, Minnesota, US: Compass Point Books, 2007. Pp. 17.
  6. ^ Roberts, Jeremy. Benito Mussolini. A & E; Twenty-First Century Books, 2006. Pp. 11.
  7. ^ Gregor, Anthony James. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, US; London, England, UK: University of California Press, 1979. Pp. 31.