Alex Salmond

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Not to be confused with Alex Salmon.
The Right Honourable
Alex Salmond
MSP
Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland.jpg
First Minister of Scotland
Incumbent
Assumed office
16 May 2007
Monarch Elizabeth II
Deputy Nicola Sturgeon
Preceded by Jack McConnell
Leader of the Scottish National Party
Incumbent
Assumed office
3 September 2004
Deputy Nicola Sturgeon
Preceded by John Swinney
In office
22 September 1990 – 26 September 2000
Deputy Alasdair Morgan
Preceded by Gordon Wilson
Succeeded by John Swinney
Deputy Leader of the Scottish National Party
In office
1987 – 22 September 1990
Leader Gordon Wilson
Preceded by Margaret Ewing
Succeeded by Alasdair Morgan
Member of the Scottish Parliament
for Aberdeenshire East
Incumbent
Assumed office
5 May 2011
Preceded by Constituency established
Member of the Scottish Parliament
for Gordon
In office
3 May 2007 – 5 May 2011
Preceded by Nora Radcliffe
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Member of the Scottish Parliament
for Banff and Buchan
In office
6 May 1999 – 7 June 2001
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Stewart Stevenson
Member of Parliament
for Banff and Buchan
In office
11 June 1987 – 6 May 2010
Preceded by Albert McQuarrie
Succeeded by Eilidh Whiteford
Personal details
Born Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond
(1954-12-31) 31 December 1954 (age 59)
Linlithgow, Scotland
Political party Scottish National Party
Spouse(s) Moira Salmond
Residence Bute House
Alma mater Edinburgh College of Commerce
University of St Andrews
Religion Church of Scotland[1]
Website Government website
from the BBC programme Desert Island Discs, 16 January 2011[2]

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (/ˈsæmənd/; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician and current First Minister of Scotland.

He became Scotland's fourth First Minister in May 2007. He is the leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP), having served for two ten-year stretches, firstly from 1990 to 2000 and subsequently from 2004, and Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for Aberdeenshire East. From 1987 to 2010 he served as Member of Parliament for Banff and Buchan in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Following the establishment of the devolved Scottish Parliament in 1999, he was elected MSP for Banff and Buchan, thus simultaneously representing the area as both Member of Parliament (MP) and MSP. Salmond resigned as SNP leader in 2000 and did not seek re-election to the Scottish Parliament. He did however retain his Westminster seat in the 2001 general election. Salmond was once again elected SNP leader in 2004 and the following year held his Banff and Buchan seat in the 2005 general election. In 2006 he announced his intention to contest the Gordon constituency in the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, an election in which Salmond defeated the incumbent MSP and in which nationally, the SNP emerged as the largest single party. After the SNP secured confidence and supply support from the Scottish Green Party, Salmond was voted First Minister by the Scottish Parliament on 16 May 2007. During his first term, he headed a minority Scottish Government. At the 2011 Scottish Parliament election the SNP won with an overall majority, a feat initially thought impossible under the additional member system used in elections for the Scottish Parliament.

Politically, Salmond is one of the foremost proponents of Scottish independence, repeatedly calling for a referendum on the issue.[3] Salmond has campaigned on global warming and in government has committed Scotland to legislation on emission reduction and the generation of renewable energy. The day after the 2014 independence referendum, at which a majority of the Scottish people voted to remain as part of the United Kingdom, Salmond announced his intention not to stand for re-election as leader of the SNP at the SNP National Conference in November, and to resign as First Minister thereafter.[4][5] There will now be a leadership election.

Early life and career

Salmond was born in his parents' home at 101 Preston Road, Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland on 31 December 1954.[6][7] He is the second of four children born to Robert Fyfe Findlay Salmond, born 1921, and Mary Stewart Salmond (née Milne; 1922–2003), both of whom were civil servants.[8] Robert Salmond, who served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War,[9] had originally worked as an electrician, and his family had been resident in Linlithgow since the mid–18th century.[10] Alex Salmond's middle names come from his family's tradition of naming their children after the local Church of Scotland minister, in this case the Reverend Gilbert Elliot Anderson of St Ninian's Craigmailen Parish Church in Linlinthgow.[11][12]

Salmond attended the local Linlithgow Academy from 1966–1972. He studied at Edinburgh College of Commerce from 1972–73, gaining an HNC in Business Studies,[13] and was then accepted by the University of St Andrews, where he studied Economics and Medieval History. During his time at St Andrews, Salmond lived in St Salvator's Hall. He was elected as Vice-President (Education) of the Students' Representative Council in 1977 and was also nominated to join St Andrews Community Council that year.[14] Salmond graduated with a 2:2 Joint Honours MA in Economics and Medieval History in May 1978.[14][15]

In 1978 he entered the Government Economic Service as an Assistant Economist in the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, part of the now defunct Scottish Office. Two years later he joined the staff of the Royal Bank of Scotland where he worked for seven years, initially as an assistant economist. In 1982 he was appointed Oil Economist, and from 1984 he worked as a bank economist as well as continuing to hold the position of Oil Economist.[15] While with the Royal Bank, he wrote and broadcast extensively for both domestic and international outlets. He also contributed regularly to oil and energy conferences. In 1983 Salmond created a "Royal Bank/BBC oil index" that is still used.

Personal life

Salmond and his wife Moira closely protect their private lives.[6] Moira Salmond, formerly McGlashan, was a senior civil servant and became her future husband's boss when he joined the Scottish Office in the 1970s. The two were married in 1981. Moira Salmond is 17 years older than Alex. The couple have no children.[16]

Salmond's main interests outside work and politics are golf, horse racing, football and reading.[17] He supports Scotland and Heart of Midlothian F.C.[18] and sometimes attends matches.

He takes an interest in Scottish cultural life, as well as watching Star Trek and listening to country and western music.[19] For Children in Need in 2008, Salmond performed an impersonation of the Rikki Fulton character, the Reverend I M Jolly.[20]

He has also been a Visiting Professor of Economics at Strathclyde University. He and his wife Moira live in a converted mill in the village of Strichen in Aberdeenshire.[16]

Political career

Early career in politics

Salmond speaking at the launch of A National Conversation, 2007

Salmond became active in the SNP when he joined the Federation of Student Nationalists at the University of St Andrews in 1973. His conversion is generally credited to his then girlfriend, Debbie Horton, an English student from London, who was secretary of the St Andrews University Labour club. After an argument in December 1973, she told him: "If you feel like that, go and join the bloody SNP". The next day Salmond did.[14] The following day he and a friend attended the sparsely populated AGM of the university branch of the Federation of Student Nationalists. Being the only two fully paid-up members of the SNP at the university, they were duly elected president and treasurer.[14] Although a left-winger at the time he joined, Salmond had considerable doubts as to whether or not the Labour Government would legislate for a devolved Scottish Assembly.

Salmond started his political life as a committed left-winger inside the SNP and was a leading member of the socialist republican organisation within it, the 79 Group. He was, along with other group leaders, suspended from membership of the SNP when the 79 Group was banned within the larger party. In 1981, he married Moira French McGlashan,[21] then a senior civil servant with the Scottish Office.

Following the SNP's National Council narrowly voting to uphold the expulsion, Salmond and the others were allowed back into the party a month later, and in 1985 he was elected as the SNP's Vice Convener for Publicity. In 1987 he stood for Parliament in Banff and Buchan and defeated the incumbent Conservative MP, Albert McQuarrie. Later that year Salmond became Senior Vice Convener (Deputy Leader) of the SNP. He was at this time still viewed as being firmly on the left of the party and had become a key ally of Jim Sillars, who joined him in the British House of Commons when he won a by-election for the seat of Glasgow Govan in 1988. Salmond served as a member of the House of Commons Energy Select Committee from 1987 to 1992.

First time as SNP leader

Salmond and Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon at the launch of A National Conversation

When Gordon Wilson stood down as SNP leader in 1990, Salmond decided to contest the leadership. His only opponent was Margaret Ewing, whom Sillars decided to support. This caused considerable consternation amongst the SNP left as the two main left leaders were opposing each other in the contest. Salmond went on to win the leadership election by 486 votes to Ewing's 146.[22]

His first test as leader was the general election in 1992, with the SNP having high hopes of making an electoral breakthrough. Whilst considerably increasing its share of the vote, it failed to win a large number of seats. Sillars lost his, causing him to describe the Scottish people as '90-minute patriots'. This comment ended the political friendship between Salmond and Sillars, and Sillars would soon become a vocal critic of Salmond's style of leadership.

The SNP increased its number of MPs from four to six in the 1997 general election, which saw a landslide victory for the Labour Party. After election, Labour legislated for a devolved Scottish parliament in Edinburgh. Although still committed to a fully independent Scotland, Salmond signed the SNP up to supporting the campaign for devolution, and, along with Scottish Labour leader Donald Dewar and Scottish Liberal Democrat leader Jim Wallace, played an active part in securing the victory for devolution in the Scotland referendum of 1997. However, many hardline fundamentalists in the SNP objected to committing the party to devolution, as it was short of full political Scottish independence.

Salmond's first spell as leader was characterised by a moderation of his earlier left-wing views and by his firmly placing the SNP into a gradualist, but still pro-independence, strategy. Salmond was one of the few politicians in the UK to oppose the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999.[23] He was opposed to the conflict because it was not authorised by a United Nations Security Council resolution, which was a controversial subject at the time. Despite this, Salmond was heavily criticised in the media for describing Tony Blair's decision to intervene militarily as an "unpardonable folly".[24]

The Salmond Cabinet in Bute House, Cabinet from 2007 until 2011

Several years as party leader earned Salmond an unusually high profile for an SNP politician in the London-based media. In 1998, Salmond won the Spectator Award for Political Strategist of the Year. Following an appearance on the entertainment programme Call My Bluff, Salmond used one of the 'bluff' cards that are used as props in the show in the run-up to the first elections to the Scottish Parliament. To counter his frustration at having to sit in silence through what he claimed was an inappropriately political speech by Tony Blair at a charity lunch, he held up the bluff card as the Prime Minister began querying Scotland's economic prospects should independence occur.[25] Throughout his time in politics, Salmond has maintained his interest in horse racing, writing a weekly column for The Scotsman and appearing a number of times on Channel 4's The Morning Line.

Salmond was elected to the Scottish Parliament in 1999 and was one of its highest-profile members. He stood down as SNP leader in 2000, facing internal criticism after a series of high-profile fall-outs with party members,[26] and was replaced by his preferred successor John Swinney, who defeated Alex Neil for the post. He left the Scottish Parliament in 2001 to lead the SNP group in the House of Commons.

During the prolonged parliamentary debates in the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq he voiced strong opposition to the UK's participation. In the aftermath of the war, he lent support to the attempt of Adam Price, a Plaid Cymru MP, to impeach Tony Blair over the Iraq issue. Salmond has gone further than many anti-war politicians in claiming that Blair's statements on the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq were consciously intended to deceive the public.[27] He has also claimed that Blair had made a pact with George W. Bush "to go to war come what may".[27]

Return as leader

On 15 July 2004, Salmond said that he would be a candidate in the forthcoming election for the leadership of the SNP.[28] This came as a surprise because he had previously declared that he would definitely not be a leadership candidate.[28] In the postal ballot of all members he went on to receive over 75% of the votes cast, placing him well ahead of his nearest rival Roseanna Cunningham.[29] Although he was re-elected in the 2005 general election, he made clear his intention to return to the Scottish Parliament at the 2007 Scottish parliamentary election in an attempt to win power for the first time.[29]

In that election, Salmond stood as a candidate for the Gordon constituency, which had been represented since 1999 by the Liberal Democrat Nora Radcliffe.[30] Salmond won the seat with 41% of the vote, and a majority of 2,062, returning to the Scottish Parliament after six years' absence. In the election the SNP emerged as the largest party, winning 47 seats to Labour's 46.

First Minister of Scotland

Salmond during a visit to Spain, 2011

Having won more seats than any other party in the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, the SNP initially approached the Scottish Liberal Democrats to form a coalition, but they declined to take part in negotiations.[31] This left the SNP without any possibility to form a coalition with an overall majority. The Scottish Green Party agreed to support an SNP minority administration on a confidence and supply basis.[32]

First term

Salmond (right) meets Ian Paisley (centre) and Martin McGuinness (left) at Edinburgh Castle in February 2008.

Salmond was elected by the Scottish Parliament as First Minister on 16 May 2007, and was sworn in on 17 May after receiving the Royal Warrant from the Queen and taking the official oath of allegiance before judges at the Court of Session.[33] Under section 45(7) of the Scotland Act 1998 he became Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland at the same time.[34] Salmond is the first nationalist politician to hold the office of First Minister.[35] He reduced the size of the Cabinet from nine members to six, and said he would seek to govern on a "policy by policy" basis.[35] In order to concentrate on his new role as First Minister, Salmond stood down as the SNP group leader at Westminster and was replaced by Angus Robertson.[36]

The Guardian reported in November 2007 that Salmond believed Scotland would be independent within "the next decade".[37]

In November 2007, Salmond received the The Spectator's Parliamentarian of the Year award for his "brilliant campaign" and "extraordinary victory" in the Scottish Parliament elections, thereby ending eight years of Labour rule.[38]

A newspaper investigation in 2009 revealed that Salmond had claimed as expenses from the UK parliament "up to £400 per month in food without producing receipts, even after becoming First Minister and spending little time at Westminster".[39] In the same year, he stated that he would repay more than £700 that he had received in moving expenses when he left a London flat in 2007,[40] but the Commons auditor stated the following year that there were "no issues" for Salmond to address regarding the expenses claim.[41]

A white paper for an independence referendum, setting out four possible options ranging from no change to full independence, was published by the Scottish Government on 30 November 2009. A draft bill for public consultation was published on 25 February 2010, setting out a two-question yes/no referendum, proposing further devolution or full independence. The SNP failed to obtain support from other parties and withdrew the draft bill.

UK general election debates

Alex Salmond and Stuart Nickerson toast the re-birth of Glenglassaugh Distillery

Salmond said it would be "unacceptable"[42] for the SNP to be excluded from the 2010 UK election televised debate and sought "guarantees of inclusion from the broadcasters, given their inescapable duty to ensure fairness and impartiality in election-related coverage in Scotland" in the build up to the 2010 UK general election. The party used the Freedom of Information Act to see whether the BBC could have broken its own rules. Salmond said it was unacceptable to Scotland as well as to the SNP for the broadcasters to exclude the party that formed the Scottish Government and was leading in Westminster election polls. He emphasised, however, that he was not trying to stop any debates from being broadcast.[43] After having failed to change the BBC's decision to not include the SNP in the final British debate, in line with the decision by ITV and Sky News, the SNP mounted a legal challenge to the BBC at the Court of Session in Edinburgh. Despite earlier reassurances by the SNP that it was not trying to stop the broadcast, it sought an 'interim interdict' to prevent the debate being broadcast without the participation of the SNP. The Court of Session dismissed the SNP's complaint, and refused to ban the BBC from broadcasting the third debate in Scotland, on the grounds that the SNP had left the bringing of the case "far too late", had not contested the broadcasting of the first two debates by ITV and Sky Television, and that the third debate would in any case be broadcast by Sky on satellite across Britain, which a Scottish court had no power to block. The judge ordered the SNP to pay the BBC's legal expenses. The SNP's political opponents described the SNP's contesting of the case as a "stunt".[44]

There were Scottish debates dealing with specifically devolved issues which Salmond had accepted the invitation to attend along the other parties within the Scottish Parliament on Sky TV. Salmond declined to attend those held on the BBC and ITV, and Angus Robertson agreed to take his place in these debates.[45]

Renewable energy

Salmond in his 2010 New Year message highlighted the importance of sustainable development and renewable energy in Scotland and the required increase in powers of the Scottish Parliament needed to help harness Scotland's green energy potential and therefore take full advantage of the "renewable revolution".[46]

Earlier, in December 2009, he campaigned for climate change legislation at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen to promote Scotland's role in tackling and mitigating climate change. This included signing a Partnership Agreement with the Maldives, one of the most exposed countries to the consequences of rising sea levels.[47][48]

Although energy is mostly a matter reserved to Westminster, administrative devolution of Sections 36 & 37 of the Electricity Act 1989 coupled with fully devolved planning powers enabled the Scottish Government to establish Scotland as a leader in renewable energy developments.

Second term

The Salmond Cabinet, 2011 seated in Bute House, the cabinet from 2011 present

The SNP again pledged to hold an independence referendum and won an overall majority in the 2011 Scottish election.[49][50] On 10 January 2012, the Scottish Government announced that they intend to hold the referendum in the autumn of 2014.[51] The Westminster Labour government had initially designed the additional member system to make it impossible for one party to win an outright majority. However, the SNP won enough seats from the other parties to take 69 seats, a majority of four. With an overall majority, Salmond now had the ability to call a referendum on Scottish independence.

An agreement was signed on 15 October 2012 by David Cameron and Salmond which provided a legal framework for the referendum to be held,[52] and on 21 March 2013 the SNP government announced that the referendum would be held on 18 September 2014.[53] Scotland's Future, a white paper setting out the Scottish Government's vision for an independent Scotland, was published on 26 November 2013.[54][55]

In December 2011, Salmond spent £260 on a pair of trews that he wore to a ball in China.[39] He refunded the taxpayer more than a year later, only after a newspaper had submitted a freedom of information request.[39] The sequence in which these events occurred was acknowledged by the Scottish Government after 7 months, during which they initially maintained that they had no record of when Salmond had repaid the money.[39]

In September 2012 he stayed with his wife at a five-star hotel in Chicago while attending a golf tournament; the £3,000 for four nights was paid for by the taxpayer and supported a VisitScotland delegation[56] that spent £468,580.[57] Salmond refused for six months to respond to a freedom of information request for information on his spending, and referred to it as "ridiculous frippery".[56]

On 7 November 2012, Salmond became the longest-serving First Minister of Scotland, when he surpassed the 2001-day term of his predecessor, Jack McConnell.[58]

In 2012, Salmond indicated in a television interview that he had sought the advice of his law officers on whether an independent Scotland would be part of the European Union.[39][59] The following year, it was revealed that the Scottish Government had spent almost £20,000 to prevent the disclosure of the content of the alleged legal advice, even though no such advice existed.[59]

Salmond has faced scrutiny for his closeness to Rupert Murdoch.[60][61][62][63]

On 19 September 2014, following the results of the independence referendum which confirmed a majority of the Scottish people had voted to remain as part of the United Kingdom, Salmond announced that he will be resigning as First Minister in November 2014.

Sporting interests

Salmond is renowned for his interest in horseracing.[6] He was made a patron of Aberdeen University Shinty Club in 2011 after attending their 150th anniversary celebrations at the Sutherland Cup final. This was Salmond's first ever shinty game.[64]

References

  1. ^ Allardyce, Jason (26 July 2009). "Salmond: 'Faith is my driving force'". London: Sunday Times Scotland. Retrieved 26 July 2009. 
  2. ^ "Alex Salmond". Desert Island Discs. 16 January 2011. BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00xgs41. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  3. ^ Scheuermann, Christoph. "King Alex: The Man Behind Scotland's Independence Movement". Der Spiegel. Hamburg. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  4. ^ "Salmond to quit as First Minister". BBC News. London: BBC. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.scotsman.com/news/politics/top-stories/alex-salmond-to-stand-down-as-first-minister-1-3547344
  6. ^ a b c Black, Andrew (11 January 2012). "BBC News – A profile of SNP leader Alex Salmond". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  7. ^ David Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds (Birlinn, 2010), p. 12
  8. ^ "Alex Salmond: The new king of Scotland". London: The Independent. 10 August 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2010. 
  9. ^ "Alex Salmond's father at HMS Queen Elizabeth carrier ceremony". BBC News (BBC). 4 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  10. ^ Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 12
  11. ^ St Ninian's Craigmailen Parish Council. 1975. p. 17. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "General Assembly of the Church of Scotland". Scotland.gov.uk. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  13. ^ Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 23
  14. ^ a b c d Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 29
  15. ^ a b Alex Salmond MSP[dead link], Scottish National Party, Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  16. ^ a b Cramb, Auslan (10 May 2007). "Moira Salmond: A reluctant First Wife". Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  17. ^ Salmond, Alex (5 January 1997). "5 days in the life of: ALEX SALMOND – Opinion". The Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  18. ^ "First Minister Alex Salmond hails all Edinburgh cup final classic". local.stv.tv. STV. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. [dead link]
  19. ^ "In conversation with... Alex Salmond". Total Politics. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  20. ^ "Salmond is Jolly for 'the Weans'". BBC News. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Moira Salmond: A reluctant First Wife, The Telegraph, 11 May 2007
  22. ^ Deacon, Russell; Sandry, Alan (2007). Devolution in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7486-2416-4. 
  23. ^ SNP News Release 30/03/99 12:06[dead link]
  24. ^ Nato bombing 'unpardonable folly', BBC News, 29 March 1999.
  25. ^ Salmond calls Blair's bluff, BBC News, 1 May 1999.
  26. ^ "Scramble to lead SNP as Salmond quits". The Telegraph. 18 July 2000. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  27. ^ a b Salmond back with threat to impeach PM, The Independent, 25 September 2004.
  28. ^ a b Salmond launches leadership bid, BBC News, 15 July 2004.
  29. ^ a b Salmond named as new SNP leader, BBC News, 3 September 2004.
  30. ^ Salmond to contest Holyrood seat, BBC News, 16 January 2006.
  31. ^ Lib Dems rule out SNP coalition, BBC News, 7 May 2007
  32. ^ Scottish Green Party website[dead link]
  33. ^ MSPs approve new Scottish cabinet, BBC News, 17 May 2007.
  34. ^ Scotland Act 1998, section 45(7)
  35. ^ a b Salmond elected as first minister, BBC News, 16 May 2007.
  36. ^ Robertson elected SNP's Westminster leader, The Guardian, 23 May 2007.
  37. ^ Carrell, Severin (17 November 2007). "Scotland in 2017 – independent and flush with oil, says Salmond". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 30 July 2010. "Ale x [sic] Salmond has predicted that Scotland will win independence from the UK within the next decade ... "It would be much easier if we had the full powers of an independent country," he said. "Therefore I was anticipating being in that position by 2017."" 
  38. ^ "Salmond 'is top parliamentarian'". BBC News. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  39. ^ a b c d e Johnson, Simon (7 October 2013) "Alex Salmond's Secrecy Battle over £250 Tartan Trews". The Daily Telegraph.
  40. ^ "Salmond to Repay £700 in Expenses". (13 October 2009) BBC News
  41. ^ Carrell, Severin (4 February 2010) "Alex Salmond Accused of Breaching Holyrood Rules with Lunch Auction". The Guardian.
  42. ^ "Salmond in SNP debate inclusion call". BBC News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  43. ^ "Legal threats to election debate". BBC News. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  44. ^ "'Too late' Alex Salmond loses battle with the BBC over debate". News.scotsman.com. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  45. ^ "Salmond happy with Sky TV debate". Heraldscotland.com. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  46. ^ "Scotland's top politicians outline aims for 2010". BBC News. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  47. ^ "We can help climate fight: Salmond". The Press Association. 14 December 2009. 
  48. ^ "Alex Salmond: Our small country can play a big role in climate change fight". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  49. ^ Stuart, Gavin (14 April 2011). "SNP launch 'Re-elect' manifesto with independence referendum vow". STV (STV Group). Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  50. ^ Carrell, Severin (6 May 2011). "Stunning SNP election victory throws spotlight on Scottish independence". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  51. ^ "Salmond calls for independence referendum in 2014". BBC News (BBC). 10 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  52. ^ Black, Andrew (15 October 2012). "Scottish independence: Cameron and Salmond strike referendum deal". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  53. ^ Carrell, Severin (21 March 2013). "Alex Salmond announces Scottish independence referendum date". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  54. ^ "Sturgeon says Scotland's Future now 'drives the debate'". BBC News (BBC). 26 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  55. ^ Dinwoodie, Robbie (27 November 2013). "Salmond gets ball rolling as opponents put the boot in" (subscription required). The Herald (Newsquest). Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  56. ^ a b Johnson, Simon; Riley-Smith, Ben (10 April 2014) "Revealed: The Five-Star Suite Alex Salmond Enjoyed at the Taxpayers' Expense". The Daily Telegraph.
  57. ^ "Alex Salmond-Led Ryder Cup Trip 'Cost £470,000'". (29 November 2012) bbc.co.uk
  58. ^ Johnson, Simon (7 November 2012). "Alex Salmond celebrates being longest-serving First Minister". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  59. ^ a b Johnson, Simon (9 October 2013) "Alex Salmond Spent £20,000 Keeping Secret Non-Existent EU Legal Advice". The Daily Telegraph.
  60. ^ Picken, Andrew (20 April 2014). "Anger over Salmond’s secret meeting with Murdoch". sundaypost.com. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  61. ^ Carrell, Severin (25 April 2014). "Alex Salmond ties to Murdoch revealed". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  62. ^ Riley-Smith, Ben (30 April 2014). "Alex Salmond: Rupert Murdoch is a 'remarkable man'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  63. ^ Cusick, James (8 September 2014). "Scottish independence: Rupert Murdoch could play kingmaker with 'Scottish Sun' leaning Yes". The Independent. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  64. ^ "First Minister accepts Aberdeen Uni Shinty Club Patron Role « Shinty". Shinty.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 

Further reading

Biographies

Other

  • Goring, Rosemary (2007). Scotland, the autobiography: 2,000 years of Scottish history by those who saw it happen. Viking. pp. 432–4. ISBN 978-0-670-91657-3. 
  • Lynch, Peter (2002). SNP: the history of the Scottish National Party. Welsh Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-86057-003-2. 

External links

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Albert McQuarrie
Member of Parliament
for Banff and Buchan

19872010
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Scottish Parliament
New constituency Member of the Scottish Parliament
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19992001
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