Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, FRS (16 May 1805 – 2 November 1841) was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes for his role in establishing contact with and exploring Bukhara, which made his name.
Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the local provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns. At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, and obtained an appointment as interpreter at Surat in 1822. Transferred to Kutch in 1826 as assistant to the political agent, he took an interest in the history and geography of north-western India and the adjacent countries, which had not yet been thoroughly explored by the British.
His proposal in 1829 to undertake a journey of exploration through the valley of the Indus River was not carried out for political reasons; but in 1831 he was sent to Lahore with a present of horses from King William IV to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The British claimed that the horses would not survive the overland journey, so they were allowed to transport the horses up the Indus and used the opportunity to secretly survey the river. In the following years, in company with Mohan Lal, his travels continued through Afghanistan across the Hindu Kush to Bukhara (in what is modern Uzbekistan) and Persia.
The narrative which he published on his visit to England in 1834 added immensely to contemporary knowledge of these countries, and was one of the most popular books of the time. The first edition earned the author £800, and his services were recognized not only by the Royal Geographical Society of London, but also by that of Paris. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society the same year.  Soon after his return to India in 1835 he was appointed to the court of Sindh to secure a treaty for the navigation of the Indus and in 1836 he undertook a political mission to Dost Mahommed Khan at Kabul.
First Afghan War
He advised Lord Auckland to support Dost Mahommed on the throne of Kabul, but the viceroy preferred to follow the opinion of Sir William Hay Macnaghten and reinstated Shah Shuja, thus leading to the disasters of the First Afghan War. On the restoration of Shah Shuja in 1839, Burnes became regular political agent at Kabul, and remained there until his assassination in 1841, during the heat of an insurrection. The calmness with which he continued at his post long after the imminence of his danger was apparent, and the ferocity with which he fought after the killing of his political assistant Major William Broadfoot (killing six assailants in the process), won him a heroic reputation, and upon his return, membership to London's prestigious Athenaeum Club. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1839.
It came to light in 1861 that some of Burnes' dispatches from Kabul in 1839 had been altered so as to convey opinions opposite to his, but Lord Palmerston refused after such a lapse of time to grant the inquiry demanded in the House of Commons. A narrative of his later labours was published in 1842 under the title of Cabool.
"Sir Alexander Burnes was duly informed by his Afghan servants, the day previous to his murder, that there was a stir in the city, and that, if he remained in it, his life would be in danger." Burnes, who had grown comfortable with his masterful command of the Persian language, ignored the admonitions. According to contemporary Afghan reports of what happened next, Burnes became an obvious target for reprisal, as he was "one of the most licentious" characters among the resident British — and this was deeply resented by the local population.
In the early morning of 2 November, disorder broke out in Kabul. By 3 AM, a hostile mob had formed outside Burnes' house and set fire to the gates. Informed that Shah Sujah had sent a military escort, Burnes ran to the rooftop to look for them, but none were coming. Burnes and his escort fired at the mob around the building.
An Afghan spokesman for the mob swore on the Qur'an that if Burnes' party ceased fire, he would lead them safely to a nearby fort occupied by Persian troops in Shah Sujah's service. Burnes agreed, and disguised himself as Afghan to facilitate the arrangement. But only a few meters from the house, Burnes and his party, including his brother, fifteen sepoys, and several Hindu servants, were attacked by the mob and killed – most cut up by knives. Burnes' Afghan servants and several others in native clothing escaped.
It is said the mob included husbands and fathers of the many Afghan women Burnes had reputedly slept with, and that it was very likely at their hands that he met his death.
He is commemorated in the name of the Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii.
- Travels into Bokhara. Being an account of a Journey from India to Cabool, Tartary and Persia. Also, narrative of a Voyage on the Indus from the Sea to Lahore (London: John Murray). 1834. 3 Vols.
- "On the Commerce of Shikarpur and Upper Scinde". Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society. Vol. II. 1836–8. (Bombay: American Mission Press). Reprinted 1844. 315–9.
- Cabool. Being a Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City in the years 1836, 7, and 8 (London: John Murray). 1842. (Posthumous).
Historical fiction featuring Burnes
- Fraser, George MacDonald, Flashman. 1969.
- Hensher, Philip, The Mulberry Empire. 2002,
- Henty, G. A., To Herat and Cabul, A Story of the First Afghan War. 1902.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- David, Saul (2007) . Victoria's Wars: The Rise of Empire. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-100555-3.
- Hopkirk, Peter (1992). The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-022-3.
- Burnes, James (1851). Notes on his name and family. Edinburgh: privately printed.
- Kaye, Sir John William, Lives of Indian Officers. 1889.
- Omrani, Bijan, "Will we make it to Jalalabad?". Biographical article on Burnes.
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