Alexander Cummings (1733–1814) was a Scottish watchmaker who was the first to patent a design of the flush toilet. This S-shaped plumbing design, survives in today's plumbing modified as a U- or J-shaped pipe trap located below or within a plumbing fixture. The S-shaped trap (or bend) was invented by Alexander Cummings in 1775 to prevent sewer gases from entering buildings. His premises were in Bond Street, London.
Born in Edinburgh in 1733, Cummings was a mathematician and mechanic as well as a watchmaker. He wrote books about watch and clock work, about the effect on roads of carriage wheels with rims of various shapes, and on the influence of gravity. He became a magistrate and a Fellow of the Royal Society.
- The Development of the Flushing Toilet - Detailed Chronology 1596 onwards, Twyfords Bathrooms, Stoke-on-Trent, UK (PDF)
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