Alexander Dallas Bache
|Alexander Dallas Bache|
Alexander Dallas Bache
July 19, 1806|
|Died||February 17, 1867
Newport, Rhode Island,
Alexander Dallas Bache (July 19, 1806 – February 17, 1867) was an American physicist, scientist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey mapping of the United States coastline.
Alexander Bache was born in Philadelphia, the son of Richard Bache, Jr., and Sophia Burrell Dallas, nephew of George M. Dallas, and great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825, he was an assistant professor of engineering there for some time. As a second lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, he was engaged in the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island. Bache resigned from the Army on June 1, 1829.
Bache occupied the post of professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1841 and again from 1842 to 1843. He spent the years 1836 to 1838 in Europe on behalf of the trustees of what became Girard College, becoming president of the college after his return. Abroad, he examined European systems of education and, on his return, published a valuable report. From 1839 to 1842, he served as the first president of Central High School of Philadelphia, one of the oldest public high schools in the United States. 
He married Nancy Clark Fowler on September 30, 1838 at Newport, Rhode Island. She was born in Newport, Rhode Island, and died on January 13, 1870 in Philadelphia. She was his associate in the preparation of much of his published material. They were the parents of one son, Henry Wood Bache, born in 1839 and died on November 7, 1878 at Bristol, Long Island, New York.
In 1843, on the death of Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, Bache was appointed superintendent of the United States Coast Survey. He convinced the United States Congress of the value of this work and by means of the liberal aid it granted, he completed the mapping out of the whole coast by a skillful division of labor and the erection of numerous observing stations. In addition, magnetic and meteorological data was collected. Bache served has head of the Coast Survey for 24 years until his death in 1867.
He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1845. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 15 March 1858, and a Foreign Member of the Royal Society on 24 May 1860.
After the Civil War, Bache was elected a 3rd Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS) in consideration of his contributions to the war effort.
The cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei A. Agassiz, 1860 was named for him; it was discovered in 1859 by Alexander Agassiz who was working as an engineer on a ship surveying the United States/Canada boundary between Washington State and British Columbia.
- Alexander Dallas Bache Monument – Bache's tomb in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, DC.
- Alexander Dallas Bache School, Philadelphia
- Alexander Bache U.S. Coast Survey Line
- Richard Bache – Bache's grandfather
- Richard Bache, Jr. – Bache's father
References and sources
- "Bache, Alexander Dallas (1806-67)" in Chambers's Encyclopædia. London: George Newnes, 1961, Vol. 2, p. 35.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bache, Alexander Dallas". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002". Royal Society of Edinburgh. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- Agassiz, G.R. 1913. Letters and recollections of Alexander Agassiz, with a sketch of his life and work, ed. by G.R. Agassiz. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 454 pages.
- Jansen, Axel. Alexander Dallas Bache: Building the American Nation through Science and Education in the Nineteenth Century Book (New York / Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2011). 352 pp. ISBN 978-3-593-39355-1
- Slotten, Hugh Richard (1994). Patronage, Practice and the Culture of American Science: Alexander Dallas Bache and the U. S. Coast Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43395-9.
- Jansen, Axel (2011). Alexander Dallas Bache: Building the American Nation through Science and Education in the Nineteenth Century. Frankfurt/New York: Campus. EAN 9783593393551
- C., J. (1868). "Obituary: Alexander Dallas Bache". Monthly Notices of the RAS (MNRAS) (Royal Astronomical Society) 28 (1): 72–75. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- Reingold, Nathan (1970). "Alexander Dallas Bache". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 363–365. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
- Heyl, PR (1941). "The One Hundredth Anniversary Of The Establishment Of The Alexander Dallas Bache Magnetic Observatory.". Science (Mar 21, 1941) 93 (2412): 272–273. Bibcode:1941Sci....93..272H. doi:10.1126/science.93.2412.272. PMID 17834787.
- Odgers, Merle M. (1947). Alexander Dallas Bache: Scientist and Educator (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press)
- Gould, Benjamin Apthorp (1868). "An Address in Commemoration of Alexander Dallas Bache: Delivered August 6, 1868, Before the American Association for the Advancement of Science" (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute Press) 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Dallas Bache.|
- Finding Aid to Alexander Dallas Bache Papers, 1821–1869
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
- The Bache Years (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Central Library)
- Alexander Dallas Bache: Leader of American Science and Second Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)