Alexander Graham Bell honors and tributes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Alexander Graham Bell
c.1918–1919

Alexander Graham Bell honours and tributes include honours bestowed upon him and awards named for him.

Alexander Graham Bell received numerous tributes during his life, and new awards were subsequently named for him posthumously.[1]

Major awards and tributes[edit]

Among those tributes:

An official government patent document, with a red ribbon and legal seal attached to its left margin.
The master telephone patent, awarded to Bell in March 1876.
A grizzly and well-dressed Alexander Graham Bell sits at a desk talking over antique telephone, surrounded by numerous business executives and news reporters, who are witnessing a historic event, in the atrium of a large corporate building.
Bell ceremoniously inaugurating the New York to Chicago telephone line, 1892
  • The National Association of Teachers of the Deaf elects Bell its president (1874);[3]
  • The United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded Bell the master telephone patent, No. 174,465, dated March 7, 1876. It becomes the foundational asset of the Bell Telephone Company, which later evolved into AT&T, at times the world's largest telephone company. The patent is considered by many to be the most valuable ever issued in history (1876);
  • The U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia made Bell's newly created telephone a featured headline worldwide just a few months after it had been patented. Among the exhibition's judges were the notable Emperor Dom Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil and the eminent British physicist William Thomson (later made Lord Kelvin). Upon hearing Bell's voice through the telephone's receiver, the emperor reputedly exclaimed: "My God! It talks!"[1][4] Thomson and Emperor Pedro, who was equally amazed that the telephone could 'speak' in Portuguese, later recommended the device to the Committee of Electrical Awards, which voted Bell its Gold Medal for Electrical Equipment. Bell also won a second Gold Medal for his additional display of Visible Speech at the exposition, and further won an order of 100 telephones from Emperor Pedro for his country. Ironically, Bell—then occupied full-time as both a private teacher and as a professor at Boston University—hadn't planned on attending the exhibition due to his heavy work schedule, and left Boston only at the last moment to attend the exposition at the stern insistence of his then-fiancée and future wife Mabel Hubbard, aged 18.[5][6] Dom Pedro's chance viewing of the invention at the fair was pivotal to the awards and world headlines Bell earned, helping the telephone gain public acceptance (1876);[7]
  • The American Academy of Arts and Sciences elected Bell a Fellow of the Academy (1877);[8]
  • Bell received the James Watt silver medal for the telephone from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1877);[9]
  • The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (a.k.a. the Association of the Mechanics of Boston) awarded two gold medals to Bell, as exhibitor #626 registered to the New England Telephone Company of Boston, MA, for both the telephone and Visible Speech, twinning the results of the Centennial Exposition held in Philadelphia two years earlier (1878);[9][10]
  • The Society of Arts in London awards him his first Royal Albert medal, a silver, for his paper on the telephone (1878);[9]
  • The Third Paris World's Fair, called the Exposition Universelle, awarded Bell (along with Elisha Gray and Thomas Edison) a Grand Prize for the telephone (1878);[11]
  • Gallaudet College, earlier chartered as the Columbia Institution Of The Deaf, and at the time called the National Deaf-Mute College, of Washington, D.C. awarded Bell an Honorary Ph.D. 'in recognition of his work for the Deaf' (1880).[9][12][13][14]
  • The French Academy, representing the French government, awarded Bell the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately $10,000) for the invention of the telephone (1880).[1][15][16][17][18][19] Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the 'Volta Fund') and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. They included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' (1880), also known as the 'Volta Laboratory' and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', as well as creating the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness. The Volta Laboratory became a permanently funded experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison;[20]
  • The President of the Third French Republic, Jules Grévy, on the recommendation of his Minister of Foreign Affairs Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire and with the presentations of the Minister of Posts and Telegraphs Louis Cochery, designated Bell with the distinction of an 'Officer Of The Legion of Honour' (Légion d'honneur) by decree on 10 November 1881, in recognition of his inventions (1881);[1][9][21][22][23]
  • The Society of Arts issues their second Royal Albert silver medal to him for his paper on his proudest achievement, the Photophone, invented a year earlier (1881);[9]
A bearded and elderly man dressed in a formal graduation robe posing with two female university representatives.
Bell receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree, University of Edinburgh, 1906.
A nineteenth century wooden rural home of some elegance, with a British Ensign flag mounted from its veranda.
Melville House at the Bell Homestead National Historic Site, his first home in Canada, opened as a museum in 1910 in Brantford, Ontario.
A ceremonial invitation card inscribed in formal print, addressed to Alexander Graham Bell, inviting him to a formal inauguration.
Invitation to Bell to inaugurate the first U.S. transcontinental telephone line, 1915.
A majestic, broad monument with figures mounted on pedestals to its left and right sides. Along the main portion of the monument are five figures mounted on a broad casting, including a man reclining, plus four floating classical female figures representing Inspiration, Knowledge, Joy, and Sorrow.
The Bell Telephone Memorial, commemorating the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. The monument, paid by public subscription and sculpted by W.S. Allward, was dedicated by the Governor General of Canada, Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire with Dr. Bell in The Telephone City's Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in 1917. Included on the main tableau are figures representing Man, the inventor, Inspiration whispering to Man, his power to transmit sound through space, as well as Knowledge, Joy, and Sorrow. (Courtesy: Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford, Ontario, Canada)

Other citations, honours and awards[edit]

  • Bell received numerous other awards and honorary degrees during his life. Among them were:[13][28]

Other posthumous tributes[edit]

  • Upon Bell's death, during his burial, "....every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance" ;[57][58]
  • When he heard of his death, Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King cabled Mrs. Bell, saying:
"[The Government expresses] to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy."[1]
"The announcement of your eminent husband’s death comes a great shock to me. In common with all of his countrymen, I have learned to revere him as one of the great benefactors.... and among the foremost Americans of all generations. He will be mourned and honored by human kind everywhere as one who served it greatly, untiringly and usefully";[1]
Inscribed marker at Bell's birthplace in Edinburgh, Scotland.
A.G. Bell US postage stamp issue of 1940
An image of darkened brass historical plaque with a streak of green corrosion running down it, mounted on the exterior side of a brick building.
Historical plaque marker in Washington, D.C., marks one of the sites used by Bell and Tainter's Photophone.
Bell statue dedicated in 1949, in the front portico of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario.
A My Fair Lady movie poster, in which Bell's works are quoted. The inspiration for the Professor Higgins character was Bell's father Alexander Melville Bell, who was introduced by Melville's brother to playwright George Bernard Shaw.
Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site and Museum, opened in 1956 in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, near to the Bells' private estate and burial site.
The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, for meritorious achievements in telecommunications. (Photo courtesy: IEEE)
Parks Canada plaque at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Park, Baddeck, Nova Scotia, adjacent to the A.G. Bell Museum on the same site
The Walk of Fame 'Bell Star' on Toronto's Simcoe Street
Commemorative marker at 109 Court Street in Boston, where Bell and Watson transmitted their first harmonic 'twang' in 1875.
Cambridge, MA plaque commemorating a three hour telephone conversation by Watson, with Bell in Boston, on October 9, 1876.
"From the top floor of this building • Was sent on June 3, 1880 • Over a beam of light to 1325 'L' Street • The first wireless telephone message • In the history of the world. • The apparatus used in sending the message • Was the Photophone invented by • Alexander Graham Bell • inventor of the telephone • This plaque was placed here by • Alexander Graham Bell Chapter • Telephone Pioneers of America..."; (1947)
  • The Charles Fleetford Sise Chapter of the Telephone Pioneers of America commissioned and dedicated a large statue of Bell in the front portico of Brantford, Ontario's new Bell Telephone Building plant on Market Street. The Pioneers raised over $5,000 across North America for the work in 1948–1949 (more than $49000 in current dollars). Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. Gillbert Grosvenor, Frederick Johnson, President of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada, T.N. Lacy, President of the Telephone Pioneers, and Brantford Mayor Walter J. Dowden. The statue had been designed and crafted by A.E. Cleeve Horne in his Toronto studio in the style of the Lincoln Memorial, and cast in bronze in New York. Pioneers president T.N. Lacy spoke at the unveiling comparing the Cleeve Horne work to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, saying that sculptor "....has accomplished in this memorial to Alexander Graham Bell what Daniel Chester French created for the Lincoln Memorial... ...he has caught and reflected the conviction that Bell, like Lincoln, was an emancipator... [He] gave freedom and range to the human voice."[62] On each side of the monument is the engraved inscription, "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone". Its dedication was broadcast nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation[62][63] (17 June 1949)
  • The Hall of Fame for Great Americans inducted Bell by 70 votes (1950);[64]
  • The Canadian Government also established the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site of Canada, which also includes the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia (1952);[65]
  • The Salem, MA Essex Institute presented a plaque (originally dedicated in 1922) honoring Alexander Graham Bell and his financial supporters Thomas and Mary Ann Brown Sanders to the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, located on Essex Street on the YMCA Building (1958);[66]
  • At the age of 19, Bell wrote a report on his studies of tuning fork resonance and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father.[67] Ellis would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in George Bernard Shaw's famous play, Pygmalion, in 1913. Pygmalion was later adapted into the Oscar Award-winning movie My Fair Lady, where in hommage to Bell's work teaching the deaf to speak, the movie's central character, Prof. Higgins (played by famed actor Rex Harrison) refers to the use of "Bell's Visible Speech" (1964).
  • The National Aviation Hall of Fame (NAHF) enshrined him as a member for his extensive pioneering research in aeronautics (1965);[31][68]
  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU) named a crater on the moon Bell, in his honor (1970);[69]
  • Canada Post released an eight cent commemorative issue stamp on July 26, 1974, honouring the centenary of the invention of the telephone at Bell's parent's home, Melville House, now called the Bell Homestead National Historic Site. The stamp feature's three phones: a (then) modern Contempra telephone by Nortel, a much earlier daffodil phone, plus Bell's very earliest experimental model of 1875, the Gallows telephone (1974);[70]
  • The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) inducted Bell as a member, describing his works: ...Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for hydroairplanes, and two for a selenium cell (1974);[31][71]
  • The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal was created in his honor by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (currently sponsored by Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs), to annually award outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications (1976);
  • Parks Canada dedicates the a park as part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, which contains the Alexander Graham Bell Museum opened earlier in 1956, not far from Bell's estate, Beinn Bhreagh (1976);
  • The Royal Bank of Scotland issued a £1 commemorative banknote to mark the 150th Anniversary of the birth of Alexander Graham Bell.[72] The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics (3 March 1997);
  • Canada honoured Bell with a $100CAD gold coin in tribute to the 150th anniversary of his birth (1997),[73] and with a silver dollar coin celebrating the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada (2009);[74]
  • Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto, Ontario awarded a special star to Bell as part of its new "Innovators' Category". The star (photo at right), with an early model telephone engraved in its very center, is located on Simcoe Street in Toronto (2001);[75][76]
  • The Ontario Government's Member of Parliament, MPP Dave Levac, along with Bell's descendants, dedicated the Brant County section of Provincial Highway 403 as "The Alexander Graham Bell Parkway", as well as an outdoor stage named the "Bell Heritage Stage" in Brantford, Ontario (2005);[77]
  • Google created a special webpage on his birthday, with links to informational websites on him (2008);[78][79]
  • The Aegis School of Business in India established the Aegis Graham Bell Awards in 2010, covering the fields of Telecom, Internet, Media, and Edutainment (TIME). The awards are held in association with the Cellular Operator Association of India (COAI) and Convergence India, and were created in tribute to Bell (2010);[80]
  • Numerous other countries also issued coins, of both nominal and high value, as well as stamps dedicated to him and his inventions. Among the stamp releases are multiple definitive and commemorative issues by both Canada and the United States.

Honorary names of schools, organizations, awards, and placenames[edit]

A number of schools, institutes, organizations, academic scholarships, awards, and places have been named in honour of Bell. A number of historic sites and other marks also commemorate both him and the first telephone company buildings. Among them are:

Of international stature (partial list):

In Canada (partial list):

In France:

In India:

In Germany:

  • Alexander Graham Bell Straße, in Bonn;
  • Graham-Bell Weg", in Garbsen, Hannover;
  • Graham-Bell Straße, in Augsburg.

In Mexico:

  • Graham Bell Street, in Residencial Los Robles, Apodaca.

In New Zealand:

In Russia:

In South Africa:,

In Switzerland:

  • Graham Bell Strasse, in Reinach.

In Spain:

  • Graham Bell Street, in Campanillas, Málaga.

In The Netherlands:

  • Graham Bell Straat, in Amsterdam;
  • Graham Bell Straat, in Heerlen.

In the United Kingdom (partial list):

One of two markers at Bell's birthplace, 14 South Charlotte Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. (Courtesy: Kim Traynor)
  • Alexander Graham Bell Birthplace, at a house on 14 South Charlotte Street in Edinburgh, Scotland, where there's an inscribed stone beside the doorway of his birth home, and additionally one within its entrance way;
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Building, at the University of Edinburgh, which was named after him;
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Apartment, an apartment-hotel also in Edinburgh.

In the United States (partial list):

  • The Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the informal name of the Volta Laboratory established by the Volta Associates in 1881;
  • Two historic tablets plus a minor monument near Exeter Place in Boston, MA mark the location of the Alexander Graham Bell's first successful telephone and the words he first transmitted to his assistant, Thomas Augustus Watson. The monument's inscription reads: "• Birthplace of the Telephone • Here, on June 2, 1875, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson first transmitted sound over wires. This successful experiment was completed in a fifth floor garret at what was 109 Court Street and marked the beginning of world-wide telephone service • The First Telephone •"'. The separate historic markers were erected by The Bostonian Society and the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1916, and by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers in 2006;
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Professorship of Health Care Entrepreneurship was established by Boston University in his memory;[84]
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Scholarship is awarded to Boston University College of Engineering students;
  • Alexander Graham Bell School, a public grammar (K–8) school on the north side of Chicago, Illinois, providing programs to deaf, blind, mentally disabled, gifted as well as standard students;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, headquartered in Washington, D.C., and with chapters across the United States, as well as internationally. The Association also sponsors the AG Bell College Scholarship Awards Program for a number of deaf or hard of hearing full-time students pursuing undergraduate or graduate degrees. In 2010, 18 awards were granted ranging from $1,000 to $10,000;
  • Alexander Graham Bell School PS 205Q, a public (K–5) school in Bayside, Queens New York;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Elementary School Academy, a (PK-8) public school on Larchmere Blvd. in Cleveland, Ohio serving regular and hearing impaired students;
  • Alexander Graham Bell School, a preschool and kindergarten center for the Columbus Public Schools Hearing Impaired Program (CHIP) in Columbus, Ohio;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Elementary School, a (K–1) public school in Columbus, OH;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Elementary School, a (PK–1) public school for regular, gifted and deaf students in Chicago, IL;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Montessori School, in Wheeling, IL. N.B.: Both Alexander and his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard were significant supporters of the Italian Montessori early childhood teaching method and helped established early Montessori schools in North America;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Elementary School, in Detroit, MI;
  • AG Bell Accelerated Academy, a school in Milwaukee, Wisconsin;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Middle School, in San Diego, California
  • AG Bell Academy for Listening and Spoken Language, at 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, D.C., an independently governed, subsidiary corporation of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, which provides certification of listening, verbal and spoken language therapists, specialists and educators;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Hall, one of the residences at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), adjacent to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) building, was named in honor of Bell and dedicated in 1979 (Bell had spent significant amounts of his personal fortune creating institutions for the deaf). A brass plaque mounted at the entrance noted that Bell was "a brilliant and innovative teacher of the deaf who dedicated a great portion of his life to help deaf children develop the potential for listening, speaking and lipreading. Today, NTID emulates the ideals for which Alexander Graham Bell worked". However those opposed to Bell's sole reliance on oralism, as well as his advocacy in the prevention of deafness via eugenics, protested the use of his name for the institutes's residence. In July 2008, the RIT president and its board of trustees approved the removal of the "Alexander Graham Bell Hall" name, along with its plaque.[85] The RIT action is apparently the only known instance of a removal of Bell's name for ideological reasons;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Boulevard, in Lehigh Acres, Lee County, Florida;
  • Alexander Graham Bell Drive, in Columbia, Maryland, and in Reston, Virginia.

Alexander Graham Bell in popular culture[edit]

In fiction[edit]

  • Eric Walters' The Hydrofoil Mystery (1999) sets a novel in Alexander Graham Bell's workshops, casting the hydrofoil as a new weapon of war being readied for use against German U-boats during the First World War.[86][87]

In music[edit]

  • In the early 1970s, the UK rock group The Sweet recorded a tribute to Bell and the telephone, suitably titled "Alexander Graham Bell". The song gives a fictional account of the invention, in which Bell devises the telephone so he can talk to his girlfriend who lives on the other side of the United States. The song reached the top 40 in the UK and went on to sell over one million recordings worldwide.
  • Another musical tribute to Bell, Alexander Graham Bell (2006) was written by the British songwriter and guitarist Richard Thompson. The chorus reminds the listener that "of course there was the telephone, he'd be famous for that alone, but there's 50 other things as well from Alexander Graham Bell".[88]

In film and TV[edit]

An actor portraying Bell speaking into an early model telephone for a 1926 promotional film by AT&T.

Other references to Bell's corporate namesakes[edit]

Film[edit]

  • Steven Spielberg's 1982 film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial includes a scene wherein the title character watches a television commercial for the Bell System, prompting the famous line, "E.T. phone home!" Later that same year the E.T. character appeared in one of Bell's "Reach out and touch someone" ads.
  • In the climax of the 1967 satirical film The President's Analyst, it is revealed that "The Phone Company" (TPC) - an obvious allusion to Bell Telephone - is planning a massive conspiracy to surgically implant communications devices into the brains of its customers. Also featured is a TPC-produced propaganda film that parodies The Bell Laboratory Science Series that Frank Capra produced for Bell Laboratories in the 1950s.

Music[edit]

  • The Beastie Boys alluded to Bell Telephone in their songs "Sure Shot" and "Get It Together" off of the 1994 Ill Communication album, by finishing the song with the repetitive line, "Ma Bell, I got the Ill Communication."
  • The Bell System plays a small but integral role in Ray Stevens's song "It's Me Again, Margaret," in which the company traces down a stalker who harasses a woman by phone.
  • In the 1980 song, "The Breaks", Kurtis Blow, one of the breaks cited is: "And Ma Bell sends you a whopping bill (that's the breaks, that's the breaks), with eighteen phone calls to Brazil."
  • In the 1978 song, "Feel Like A Number", Bob Seger sings the line: "To Ma Bell I'm just another phone."
  • In the 1943 song "Kansas City" (from Oklahoma!), the Bell System is mentioned in these lines: "'Nen I put my ear to a Bell Telephone / And a strange woman started in to talk!" (lines 7 and 8[91]).

Radio and television[edit]

  • From 1940 to 1968 the company sponsored The Bell Telephone Hour on NBC radio and (later) television. The program was devoted to concert performances by various singers and musicians.

Corporate namesakes[edit]

Further information: Bell System –Subsidiaries

The 'Bell' trademark has been used and is still in use with a variety of telephone companies in North America and around the world, including (partial list):

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Dr. Bell, Inventor of Telephone, Dies: Sudden End, Due to Anemia...: Notables Pay Him Tribute, The New York Times, August 3, 1922;
  2. ^ Groundwater, Jennifer (2005) Alexander Graham Bell: The Spirit of Invention, p. 35. Altitude Publishing, Calgary ISBN 1-55439-006-0. Note: Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited, as he did in Boston the day he succeeded in conducting the world's first communication by an electric telephone;
  3. ^ Grosvenor, 1997. p. 12.
  4. ^ Inventing the Telephone, AT&T website, retrieved 2009-04-29.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Gray, Charlotte Reluctant Genius: The Passionate Life and Inventive Mind of Alexander Graham Bell, HarperCollins, Toronto, 2006, pp. 137–138, ISBN 0-00-200676-6, ISBN 978-0-00-200676-7. Note: Mabel understood Bell's reluctance to go to the exhibition, so she secretly bought his train ticket, packed his bag, and then took the unknowing Bell to the train station where she told her shocked fiancé that he was going on a trip. When Bell started protesting Mabel turned her sight away from him, thus becoming literally deaf to his utterances; she additionally threatened to cancel their marriage engagement. Note: some of Bell's honorary degrees received on p. 346;
  6. ^ De Land, Fred (1906) Notes on the Development of the Telephone, Popular Science, November 1906, pp. 427–438.
  7. ^ Sammartino McPherson, Stephanie; Butler, Tad. Alexander Graham Bell, Lerner Publications, 2007, p. 28, ISBN 0-8225-7606-6, ISBN 978-0-8225-7606-8. Quote: "Dom Pedro had [previously] met Alec at a school for the deaf in Boston. When the emperor greeted Alec, the [other] judges took note. They wanted to see what the emperor's friend had invented;"
  8. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Scots and Scots Descendant in America, Part V - Biographies, Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D. Ph.d., Se.D., M.D., ElectricScotland.com website. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  10. ^ Exhibition... : Volumes 12-13, Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, Boston, 1874 (sic), pp. 170–171. Note: a lengthy citation is provided on the significance of Bell's telephone, which is immediately followed by the citation for Edison's transmitter.
  11. ^ New York Times (1878) Current Topics Abroad, N.Y. Times, October 24, 1878. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  12. ^ a b c Bruce, Robert V. (1990) Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude, pp. 477, 483, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-9691-8, ISBN 978-0-8014-9691-2.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Interference Case in the U. S. Patent Office, THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION versus MYERS: Deposition of Alexander Graham Bell, Reprinted from The Beinn Bhreagh Recorder Vol.XVII No.10, pp. 195–221, retrieved from the U.S. Library of Congress 2009-04-05.
  14. ^ U.S. President. Abridgement, Message And Documents, United States Government, 1880, pp. 840–841. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  15. ^ Honors to Professor Bell, Boston Daily Evening Traveller, September 1, 1880, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress –Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers.
  16. ^ Volta Prize of the French Academy Awarded to Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, September 1, 1880, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress -Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers;
  17. ^ Telegram from Grossman to Alexander Graham Bell, August 2, 1880, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress –Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers.
  18. ^ Telegram from Alexander Graham Bell to Count du Moncel, 1880, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress -Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers.
  19. ^ Letter from Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to Alexander Graham Bell, January 7, 1882, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress -Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers.
  20. ^ Letter from Mabel Hubbard Bell, February 27, 1880, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress -Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. N.B.: last line of the typed note refers to the future disposition of award funds: "....and thus the matter lay till the paper turned up. He intends putting the full amount into his Laboratory and Library".
  21. ^ Gore, James Howard (1920) American Legionnaires of France, W.F. Roberts Co., Washington, 1920. Retrieved 2009-03-09. Note: Bell was "Created Officier November 11, 1881..."; his then current address (presumably when the book of 1920 was published) was: 1331 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C.
  22. ^ Certificate: Ordre National de la Légion D'Honneur Library of Congress: Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, Washington, D.C., retrieved 2009-04-05 (not the actual certificate, but a note referring to it).
  23. ^ Decree of the French Republic, 10 November 1881, (hardcopy). Note that the same decree awarded German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz with the designation of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. Bell was referenced as #2190 on the decree, Helmholtz was referenced as #2173, and fellow inventor Thomas Edison, who also exhibited at the fair, was reference #1291 (sic) on p. 4 (not shown). The decree preamble cited "for services provided to the Congress and to the International Electrical Exhibition";
  24. ^ APS Member History
  25. ^ The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers: Time Line of Alexander Graham Bell, 1880–1889, retrieved 2009-04-30 from The Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers.
  26. ^ a b c d Osborne, Harold S. (1943) BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, National Academy of Sciences: Biographical Memoirs, Vol. XXIII, 1847–1922 , presented to the Academy at its 1943 annual meeting.
  27. ^ Hochheiser, Sheldon.Engineering Hall Of Fame: Alexander Graham Bell, IEEE History Center website, April 2010.
  28. ^ a b Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online: BELL, ALEXANDER GRAHAM, 1921–1930 (Volume XV), retrieved March 6, 2009.
  29. ^ Illinois College: Honorary Degrees Conferred
  30. ^ a b c Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers: Biographical Notes, Library of Congress, retrieved 2009-04-05.
  31. ^ a b c d NNDB Tracking The Entire World (database), retrieved 2009-03-07.
  32. ^ Smithsonian Institution, Board of Regents: Resolution to Alexander Graham Bell, February 7, 1916, Library of Congress Manuscript Division: Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, retrieved 2009-04-05, N.B. in 1916 Bell was reappointed under S. J. Res 197.
  33. ^ Directory of the Washington Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies: Comprising the Anthropological, Biological, Chemical, Entomological, Geographic, Geological, Historical, Medical, and Philosophical Societies, Washington Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1903.
  34. ^ University of Edinburgh: Graduation Ceremonial, Library of Congress Manuscript Division: Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, retrieved 2009-04-05.
  35. ^ University of Edinburgh: convocation request Library of Congress, retrieved 2009-04-05;
  36. ^ Certificate from the Senatus Academicus of the University of Edinburgh to Alexander Graham Bell, February 4, 1905, Library of Congress Manuscript Division: Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, retrieved 2009-04-05.
  37. ^ Grosvenor, 1997. p. 13.
  38. ^ Note: there are conflicting years cited in the various references for this degree, however only the Queen's University year is shown.
  39. ^ a b Interference Case in the U. S. Patent Office, THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION versus MYERS: Deposition of Alexander Graham Bell, Reprinted from The Beinn Bhreagh Recorder Vol.XVII No.10, pp. 195–221, retrieved from the U.S. Library of Congress 2009-04-05. Note: Although Queen's University (in Kingston, Ontario) is cited, Bell inaccurately identified it as 'Kingston' University (or College) during his legal deposition.
  40. ^ Queen's University: Queen's Encyclopedia: Honorary Degrees; Queen's University website. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  41. ^ Pay Us a Call at Melville House!, Brantford, ON: Bell Homestead National Historic Site website.
  42. ^ a b Butorac, Yvonne. "Bell's Brantford Homestead Celebrates Phone Invention", Toronto Star, June 29, 1995, p. G10, ProQuest document ID 437257031.
  43. ^ Bell Homestead Society. Bell Homestead National Historic Site: The Site, retrieved from the Bell Homestead Society website, June 29, 2011.
  44. ^ a b c Whitaker, A.J. Bell Telephone Memorial, City of Brantford/Hurley Printing, Brantford, Ontario, 1917.
  45. ^ Case File of Alexander Graham Bell Committee on Science and the Arts 1912 Cresson Medal, Franklin Institute website, retrieved 2009-04-05.
  46. ^ New York Times. Dartmouth Graduates 208: Alexander Graham Bell Among Those Receiving Honorary Degrees, The New York Times, June 26, 1913.
  47. ^ Invitation from Theodore N. Vail to Alexander Graham Bell to Attend Ceremonies Marking the Completion of the Transcontinental Telephone System Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Bell Family Papers;
  48. ^ 1915: First Transcontinental Telephone Call, retrieved 2009-04-29 from AT&T website.
  49. ^ Honor Medal for Dr. Bell: The Civic Forum Awards Trophy to Inventor of Telephone, The New York Times, March 22, 1917. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
  50. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  51. ^ Chicago Tribune. School Board Decides To Hold All Vacant Land, Chicago Tribune, October 1, 1915, p. 11 (subscription).
  52. ^ Bell, Alexander G., Elementary School, retrieved from CPSAlumni.org website May 11, 2011.
  53. ^ Electrical Review. Electrical Review -Volume 72, International Trade Press, 1918, p. 704.
  54. ^ Gazetteer of Scotland, retrieved from the website 2009-03-14.
  55. ^ a b Shulman 2008, p. 46.
  56. ^ Certificate to Alexander Graham Bell, July 3, 1876: Boston Society of Natural History, retrieved 2009-04-05 from Library of Congress -Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers; N.B.: Bell had to pay a $5.00 induction membership fee to this society upon receiving his membership
  57. ^ More About Bell PBS website, retrieved 2009-02-06;
  58. ^ Osborne, Harold S. (1943) Biographical Memoir of Alexander Graham Bell, p. 18, Presented to The National Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting, 1943;
  59. ^ Beauchamp, Christopher. Who Invented the Telephone?: Lawyers, Patents, and the Judgments of History, Technology and Culture, Vol. 51, No. 4, October 2010, p. 878 (of pp. 854–878), DOI: 10.1353/tech.2010.0038.
  60. ^ Sizes (metrology) website
  61. ^ Scott's United States Stamp Catalogue
  62. ^ a b "Daughter Unveils Inventor's Statue: Bronze Figure Is Dedicated By Phone Pioneers", Brantford Expositor, 18 June 1949;
  63. ^ Ireland, Carolyn. "The Portrait Studio House", The Globe and Mail, 27 February 2009.
  64. ^ David Wallechinsky & Irving Wallace Hall of Fame for Great Americans 1950. Attributed to "The People's Almanac", 1975–1981. Retrieved 2009-05-05;
  65. ^ Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site, Parks Canada website.
  66. ^ Salem History Website, Salemhistoryonline.com;
  67. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 30.
  68. ^ NAHF webpage, retrieved 2009-03-07
  69. ^ a b Gazetteer Of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union website, retrieved July 2010;
  70. ^ The Telephone, 1874–1974 (Postage Stamp Press Release, Postal Source: 0621), at Canadian Postal Archives Database, Canada Post Office Department, 1974. Retrieved from Library and Archives Canada website on 21 August 2013.
  71. ^ NIHF website
  72. ^ Royal Bank Commemorative Notes
  73. ^ Royal Canadian Mint Numismatic Coins (20th Century)
  74. ^ Royal Canadian Mint website N.B.: that first flight was made by an aircraft designed under the tutelage of Dr. Bell, named the Silver Dart
  75. ^ Salem, Rob (2001-06-02). "New Walk of Fame stars dig their Canadian roots - Thousands of people across country voted for their favourite homegrown talent". Toronto Star. ;
  76. ^ "Cadillac is Presenting Sponsor and Alexander Graham Bell is First Honouree in "Innovators" Category of Canada's Walk of Fame" (Press release). General Motors. 2001-05-24. Retrieved 2009-04-29. ;
  77. ^ Press Release: Bell Canada to Dedicate $150,000 to Brantford, Ontario Civic Square Project, Bell Canada Enterprises, 29 July 2005. Retrieved 27 July 2007
  78. ^ Searches for Alexander Graham Bell on Google;
  79. ^ Bell Birthday Logo (March 3rd), Google.com;
  80. ^ About Aegis Graham Bell Awards, Navi Mumbai, India: Aegis School of Business website. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  81. ^ Bethune, Jocelyn. Historic Baddeck: Images Of Our Past, Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, N.S., 2009, pp. 112–113, 117, ISBN 1-55109-706-0, ISBN 978-1-55109-706-0.
  82. ^ Bethune, Jocelyn. "Alexander Graham Bell’s Granddaughter Dies At 101", The Chronicle Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 31 October 2006.
  83. ^ Sullivan, Patricia. Obituary: Mabel Grosvenor, 101, Doctor, Granddaughter Of Inventor Bell, Washington Post, November 9, 2006. Retrieved via the Boston Globe at Boston.com on June 15, 2010;
  84. ^ Fitzgerald, Brian. Alexander Graham Bell: The BU Years, B.U. Bridge, 14 September 2001, Vol. V, No. 5. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  85. ^ Hurwitz, Alan (2008) "Memo from NTID President Alan Hurwitz to RIT President Bill Destler", National Technical Institute for the Deaf, June 30, 2008;
  86. ^ Walters 1999, pp. 166–167.
  87. ^ Walters, Eric (1999) The Hydrofoil Mystery, Viking/Allen Lane, February 1999, ISBN 0-670-88186-4, ISBN 978-0-670-88186-4;
  88. ^ Thompson's song The song mentions Bell's work with discs rather than cylinders, the hydrofoil, his work with the deaf, the invention of the respirator and several other of Bell's achievements.
  89. ^ "100 great British heroes". BBC. 21 August 2002. 
  90. ^ Beatlelinks: The Greatest Britons of All Times
  91. ^ http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/20774692/1004561765/name/Rogers%2B-%2BOklahoma.pdf - Fair Use, Page 39
  92. ^ Alcatel Shanghai Bell Is Now Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, EFYTimes.com. Retrieved 2009-05-06;
  93. ^ Pizer 2009, p. 122
  94. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 291
  95. ^ Pizer 2009, pp. 120–124
  96. ^ a b Gower Bell, Bob's Old Phones website. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  97. ^ Success for Bell’s new company, Ericsson website. Retrieved 24 November 2009;
  98. ^ Bell of Japan Launched Network Videophone Project in Shenyang; AsiaInfo, August 23, 2003;
  99. ^ a b Harwit, Eric China's Telecommunications Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-19-923374-8, ISBN 978-0-19-923374-8;
Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Alexander Graham Bell (booklet). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Limited, 1979.
  • Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8014-9691-8.
  • Black, Harry. Canadian Scientists and Inventors: Biographies of People who made a Difference. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited, 1997. ISBN 1-55138-081-1.
  • Dunn, Andrew. Alexander Graham Bell (Pioneers of Science series). East Sussex, UK: Wayland (Publishers) Limited, 1990. ISBN 1-85210-958-0.
  • Eber, Dorothy Harley. Genius at Work: Images of Alexander Graham Bell. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982. ISBN 0-7710-3036-3.
  • Grosvenor, Edwin S. and Morgan Wesson. Alexander Graham Bell: The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Telephone. New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc., 1997. ISBN 0-8109-4005-1.
  • Groundwater, Jennifer. Alexander Graham Bell: The Spirit of Invention. Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-55439-006-0.
  • Mackay, James. Sounds Out of Silence: A life of Alexander Graham Bell. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 1-85158-833-7.
  • MacKenzie, Catherine. Alexander Graham Bell. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7661-4385-2. Retrieved: July 29, 2009.
  • Matthews, Tom L. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7391-5.
  • Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006. ISBN 978-0-06-057618-9.
  • Parker, Steve. Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone(Science Discoveries series). New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-7910-3004-0.
  • Petrie, A. Roy. Alexander Graham Bell. Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1975. ISBN 0-88902-209-7.
  • Phillips, Allan. Into the 20th Century: 1900/1910 (Canada's Illustrated Heritage). Toronto: Natural Science of Canada Limited, 1977. ISBN 0-919644-22-8.
  • Ross, Stewart. Alexander Graham Bell (Scientists who Made History series). New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-7398-4415-6.
  • Shulman, Seth. The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Bell's Secret. New York: Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0-393-06206-9.
  • Town, Florida. Alexander Graham Bell. Toronto: Grolier Limited, 1988. ISBN 0-7172-1950-X.
  • Tulloch, Judith. The Bell Family in Baddeck: Alexander Graham Bell and Mabel Bell in Cape Breton. Halifax: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 2006. ISBN 978-0-88780-713-8.
  • Walters, Eric. The Hydrofoil Mystery. Toronto: Puffin Books, 1999. ISBN 0-14-130220-8.
  • Webb, Michael, ed. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991. ISBN 0-7730-5049-3.
  • Wing, Chris. Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King, 1980.

External links[edit]