Alexander Hood, 1st Viscount Bridport

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Alexander Hood, 1st Viscount Bridport
Alexander Hood, 1st Viscount Bridport by Lemuel Francis Abbott.jpg
Lord Bridport
Born 2 December 1726
Died 2 May 1814
Allegiance  Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch  Royal Navy
Years of service 1741 - 1800
Rank Admiral
Commands held HMS Prince
HMS Minerva
HMS Africa
HMS Robust
Channel Fleet
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Awards Knight of the Order of the Bath

Admiral Alexander Hood, 1st Viscount Bridport, KB (2 December 1726 – 2 May 1814) was an officer of the British Royal Navy during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, and the brother of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood.

Early life[edit]

Hood entered the navy in January 1741 and was appointed Lieutenant in HMS Bridgewater in 1746. He was promoted to Commander in 1756 and served as flag captain for Rear Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, first on the HMS Prince in the Mediterranean (the flagship of Rear-Admiral Saunders, under whom Hood had served as a lieutenant), then on the frigate HMS Minerva.[1]

Seven Years' War[edit]

In the Seven Years' War Hood fought at the Battle of Quiberon Bay on 20 November 1759, and in 1761 Minerva recaptured after a long struggle, the 60-gun HMS Warwick of equal force, which had been captured by the French in 1756. For the remainder of the war, from 1761 to 1763, he was captain of HMS Africa in the Mediterranean.[1]

American War of Independence[edit]

From this time forward Hood was in continuous employment afloat and ashore. In 1778 he was appointed to HMS Robust and fought at the First Battle of Ushant on 22 July.[1] In the court-martial of Admiral Augustus Keppel that followed the battle, although adverse popular feeling was aroused by the course which Hood took in Keppel's defence, his conduct does not seem to have injured his professional career.

In 1780 Hood was promoted to Rear Admiral of the White, and succeeded Kempenfeldt as one of Howe's flag-officers.[1] In the American Revolutionary War, in HMS Queen, he took part in Howe's relief of Gibraltar in 1782.[1]

French Revolutionary War[edit]

Hood served in the House of Commons for a time. Promoted vice-admiral in 1787,[1] he became K.B. in the following year, and on the occasion of the Spanish armament in 1790 flew his flag again for a short time. On 22 October 1790 he was a member of the court that acquitted William Bligh of losing his ship HMS Bounty. On the outbreak of war with France in 1793 he went to sea again. In the War of the First Coalition, on 1 June 1794, in HMS Royal George, he was third in command to Admiral Lord Howe at the battle of the Glorious First of June. For his exploits in this battle he was elevated to the Irish peerage as Baron Bridport.[1]

Henceforth Hood was practically in independent command. On 23 June 1795, with his flag in HMS Queen Charlotte (100), he fought the inconclusive Battle of Groix against the French under Rear Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse off the Île de Groix and captured three ships.[1] He was much criticized in the navy for his failure to win a more decisive victory. However the British public considered the battle a great victory and his peerage was made English and he was promoted to Vice-Admiral of Great Britain.

From 1795 until Hood's retirement in 1800, he was commander of the Channel Fleet. In 1796 and 1797 he directed the war from HMS London, rarely hoisting his flag afloat save at such critical times as that of the Irish expedition in 1797. He was about to put to sea when the Spithead fleet mutinied. He succeeded at first in pacifying the crew of his flagship, who had no personal grudge against their admiral, but a few days later the mutiny broke out afresh, and this time was uncontrollable. For a whole week the mutineers were supreme, and it was only by the greatest exertions of the old Lord Howe that order was then restored and the men returned to duty. After the mutiny had been suppressed, Hood took the fleet to sea as commander-in-chief in name as well as in fact, and from 1798 he personally directed the blockade of Brest, which grew stricter and stricter as time went on. In 1800 he was relieved by John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent.[1]

In reward for Hood's fine record his peerage was made a viscounty. He spent the remaining years of his life in retirement and died on 2 May 1814. The viscountcy in the English peerage died with him; the Irish barony passed to the younger branch of his brother's family, for whom the viscountcy was re-created in 1868.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Hon. Anne Poulett
John Acland
Member of Parliament for Bridgwater
with Hon. Anne Poulett 1784-1785
Robert Thornton 1785-1790

1784–1790
Succeeded by
Hon. Vere Poulett
John Langston
Preceded by
James Grenville
George Nugent
Member of Parliament for Buckingham
with George Nugent

1790–1796
Succeeded by
George Nugent
Thomas Grenville
Honorary titles
Preceded by
George Darby
Rear-Admiral of Great Britain
1790–1796
Succeeded by
Sir William Cornwallis
Preceded by
The Earl Howe
Vice-Admiral of Great Britain/the United Kingdom
1796–1814
Succeeded by
Sir William Cornwallis
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
New Creation
Viscount Bridport
1800–1814
Succeeded by
Extinct
Baron Bridport
1796–1814
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Bridport
1794–1814
Succeeded by
Samuel Hood