Alexander I of Georgia

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Alexander I the Great
ალექსანდრე I დიდი
King of Kings of Georgia
ალექსანდრე I დიდი.jpg
King of Georgia
Reign 1412–1442
Predecessor Constantine I
Successor Vakhtang IV
Spouse Dulandukht
Tamar
Issue Vakhtang IV
Demetrius
George VIII
David
Zaal
Bagrationi (daughter)
Full name
Alexander I the Great
Aleksandre I Didi
Athanasius (monastery name)
Dynasty Bagrationi
Father Constantine I of Georgia
Mother Natia Amirejibi
Born 1386
Died between August 26, 1445 and March 7, 1446
Burial Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, Mtskheta
Signature
Religion Georgian Orthodox Church

Alexander I the Great (Georgian: ალექსანდრე I დიდი Aleksandre I Didi) (1386 – between August 26, 1445 and March 7, 1446), of the Bagrationi house, was king of Georgia from 1412 to 1442. Despite his efforts to restore the country from the ruins left by the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur Leng’s invasions, Georgia never recovered and faced the inevitable fragmentation that was followed by a long period of stagnation. In 1442, he abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery.

Life[edit]

Alexander was the eldest son of Constantine I of Georgia and his wife Natia, daughter of the Georgian diplomat prince Kutsna Amirejibi. He was brought up by his grandmother (Natia's mother) Rusa (died 1413), an educated and religious noblewoman, who greatly influenced the future king’s preoccupations and his enthusiasm for religious building.

With his ascension to the throne (1412), Alexander moved to western Georgia and mediated a peace between his vassals, the rival princes of Mingrelia and Abkhazia. Then he, in 1414, met the rebellious prince Atabeg Ivane Jakeli of Samtskhe on battlefield and forced him into submission. Having dealt with these powerful feudal lords, he, aided by Catholicos Patriarch Shio II, began a program the restoration of major Georgian fortresses and churches. He imposed a temporary building tax on his subjects from 1425 to 1440, but despite the king’s efforts many towns and villages, once flourished, were left in ruin and overgrown by forest.

In 1431, he re-conquered Lorri, a Georgian marchland occupied by the Kara Koyunlu Turkoman tribesmen of Persia who had frequently raided the southern Georgian marches from there and had even sacked Akhaltsikhe in 1416.[1] Around 1434/5, Alexander encouraged the Armenian prince Beshken II Orbelian to attack the Kara Koyunlu clansmen in Syunik (Siunia) and, for his victory, granted him Lorri under terms of vassalage. In 1440, Alexander refused to pay tribute to Jahan Shah of the Kara Kouynlu. In March, Jahan Shah surged into Georgia with 20,000 troops, destroyed the city of Samshvilde and sacked the capital city Tbilisi. He massacred thousands of Christians, put heavy indemnity on Georgia, and returned to Tabriz.

In order to reduce the power of frequently rebellious aristocracy, he opposed them by appointing his sons – Vakhtang, Demetre, and George – as his co-rulers in Kakheti, Imereti and Kartli, respectively. This, however, proved to be even dangerous to the kingdom's integrity and the fragile unity kept by Alexander would soon disappear under his sons. For this reason, Alexander the Great is frequently claimed to have disintegrated Georgia and said not to deserve his epithet "the Great" his people bestowed on him.[2] This appellation dates almost from his own day, however, and as the modern Georgian historian Ivane Javakhishvili presumes, might have been related to the large-scale restoration projects launched by the king and his initial success in the struggle with the Turkmen nomads.[3]

As worldly problems overwhelmed his kingdom, Alexander abdicated the throne in 1442 and retired to a monastery under the name of Athanasius.

Marriages and children[edit]

He married c. 1411 Dulandukht, daughter of Beshken II Orbelian, by whom he had two sons:

Alexander's second marriage with Tamar (died 1455), daughter of prince Alexander I of Imereti, took place around 1414. Their children were:

  • George VIII, the last king of a united Georgia and the first king of independent Kakheti
  • David, Catholicos Patriarch of Georgia consecrated in 1426.
  • Zaal (born c.1428 – died after 1442), Alexander's fifth son, sixth and last child. He was made a co-king by his father in 1433.[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to the 15th-century Armenian historian Thomas of Metsoph (T’ovma Metsobets’i), the Kara Kouynlu leader Kara Yusuf invaded Samtskhe and pillaged its capital Akhaltsikhe in 1416 in response to the profanation inflicted by the local Christian Georgians and Armenians on a mosque.
  2. ^ Suny (1994), page 45
  3. ^ Ivane Javakhishvili (1982), page 243
  4. ^ Toumanoff, Cyril (1949–51). "The Fifteenth-Century Bagratids and the Institution of Collegial Sovereignty in Georgia", Traditio 7: 181-3.
  5. ^ Toumanoff, "The Fifteenth-Century Bagratids", Traditio 7: 190.

References[edit]

  1. Ivane Javakhishvili, The History of the Georgian Nation, vol. 3 (1982), Tbilisi State University Press (In Georgian)
  2. Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition (December 1994), Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-20915-3
  3. T'oma Metsobeli's History of Tamerlane and His Successors
  4. Kings of Georgia at the Royal Ark website

See also[edit]

Preceded by
Constantine I
King of Georgia
1412–1442
Succeeded by
Vakhtang IV