Alexander Jannaeus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Alexander Jannaeus
King and High Priest of Judea
Alexander Jannaeus.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, woodcut designed by Guillaume Rouillé. From Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum.
Reign c. 103 — 76 BC
Predecessor Aristobulus I
Successor Salome Alexandra
Father John Hyrcanus I
Hasmonean Kingdom under Alexander Jannaeus
  situation in 103 BC
  area conquered

Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; Hebrew: אלכסנדר ינאי) was king of Judea from 103 BC to 76 BC. The son of John Hyrcanus, he inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus I, and appears to have married his brother's widow, Shlomtzion or "Shelomit", also known as Salome Alexandra, according to the Biblical law of Yibbum ("levirate marriage"), although Josephus is inexplicit on that point.

His likely full Hebrew name was "Jonathan"; he may have been the High Priest Jonathan, rather than his great-uncle of the same name, who established the Masada fortress. Under the name "King Yannai" he appears as a wicked tyrant in the Talmud, reflecting his conflict with the Pharisee party. He is among the more colorful historical figures, despite being little known outside specialized history. He and his widow (who became queen regnant after his death) had a substantial impact on the subsequent development of Judaism.[1]

Jannaeus expanded the Hasmonean Kingdom and established the city of Gamla in 81 BC, as the capital of his conquests in the Golan Heights.

Family[edit]

Alexander Jannaeus was the third son of John Hyrcanus, by his second wife. When Aristobulus I, Hyrcanus' son by his first wife, became king, he deemed it necessary for his own security to imprison his half-brother. Aristobulus died after a reign of one year. Upon his death, his widow, Salome Alexandra had Alexander and his brothers released from prison.[2]

Alexander, as the oldest living brother, had the right not only to the throne but also to Salome, the widow of his deceased brother, who had died childless; and, although she was thirteen years older than he, he married her. By her, he had two sons, the eldest, Hyrcanus II became high-priest in 62 BC and Aristobulus II who was high-priest from 66 - 62 BC and started a bloody civil war with his brother, ending in his capture by Pompey the Great.[3]

Conquests[edit]

During the twenty-seven year reign of Alexander Jannaeus, he was almost constantly involved in military conflict. International factors at the time created an environment suitable for Jannaeus' conquests. First, Jannaeus received support from Cleopatra III of Egypt. This support was particularly crucial during the war with Ptolemy Lathyrus (discussed later). Ultimately, conflict in the Roman Republic was the greatest outside influence on Judean military campaigns. Political instability in Rome led to a Civil War beginning in 88 BC. With Rome chiefly concerned with a tumultuous domestic predicament, Jannaeus was free to expand the Judean state.

War with Ptolemy Lathyrus[edit]

Alexander's first expedition was against the city of Ptolemais (Acre). This campaign seems to have been well timed politically as a weak Seleucid Empire was unable to intervene. Help came to the citizens of Ptolemais from Ptolemy Lathyrus, who had been cast out by his mother, Cleopatra III of Egypt, and had founded for himself a kingdom in Cyprus. He landed a large army for the relief of the town; but Alexander met him with treachery, arranging an alliance with him openly while secretly he sought to obtain the help of his mother against him. As soon as Ptolemy learned of this intrigue, he marched against Asochis, near Sepphoris, which, together with 10,000 prisoners and much plunder, he captured. A similar attack upon Sepphoris failed; but in a later battle at Azophon on the Jordan, Alexander with his whole army suffered a defeat at the hands of a much smaller force. Alexander allowed the enemy to cross the river unimpeded, in order that, as he thought, he might the more easily catch him between his army and the stream. He saw his error only when it was too late. The enemy fell upon the Jewish camp, women and children were struck down, their corpses were hacked to pieces, flung into caldrons and boiled, so that the people thought they were dealing with cannibals. This act was used to terrify the Judean people and their military. Alexander might easily have lost his crown and Judea its independence as the result of this battle, had it not been for the assistance extended by Egypt. Cleopatra's two Jewish generals, Helkias and Ananias, persuaded the queen of the dangers of allowing her banished son Ptolemy to remain victorious and she entrusted them with an army against him. As a result Ptolemy was forced to withdraw to Cyprus, and Alexander was saved. The Egyptians as compensation for their aid, desired to annex Judea to their country, but considerations touching the resident Egyptian Jews, who were the main support of her throne, induced Cleopatra to modify her longings for conquest. The Egyptian army withdrawn, Alexander found his hands free; and forthwith he planned new campaigns.[2]

He captured Gadara and the strong fortress Amathus on the Jordan; but, in an ambush set for him by Theodorus, ruler of Amathus, he lost the whole of the rear-guard of his army—10,000 men —together with his baggage. He was more successful in his expedition against Philistia, capturing Raphia, Anthedon. Finally, in 96 BC[4] Jannaeus outlasted the inhabitants of Gaza in a year long siege, which he occupied through treachery, and gave up to be pillaged and burned by his soldiery. This victory gained Judean control over the Mediterranean outlet for the Nabatean trade routes.[5]

High Priesthood[edit]

The relations between Alexander and the Pharisees were probably never very cordial; though, according to the statement of the Talmud, Simon b. Sheṭaḥ, the head of the party, was a brother of the queen and a frequent guest at the palace.[2] The rival Sadducees were avid supporters of Jannaeus (see 4Q448). Furthermore, Jannaeus established himself as a ruler concerned mainly with conquests rather than his religious obligations.

One year during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, Alexander Jannaeus, while officiating as the High Priest (Kohen Gadol) at the Temple in Jerusalem, demonstrated his support of the Sadducees by denying the commandment of the water libation: instead of pouring it on the altar, he poured it on his feet. The crowd responded with shock at his mockery and showed their displeasure by pelting Alexander with the etrogim (citrons) that they were holding in their hands. Unwittingly, the crowd had played right into Alexander's hands. He had intended to incite the people to riot and his soldiers fell upon the crowd at his command. The soldiers slew more than 6,000 people in the Temple courtyard.

This incident during the "Feast of Tabernacles" was a major factor leading up to the Judean Civil War by igniting popular opponents of Jannaeus. A Qumran document sheds further light on another opponent of Jannaeus. The scroll 4Q390 was written by an adversary of Jannaeus seeking popular support to overthrow the Hasmonean King. The author called for an end to the dispute between Jannaeus and the Pharisees. According to the author, the only acceptable solution was an end to the Hasmonean Priesthood and secular control. This opposition culminated in the Judean Civil War.

Judean Civil War and the Crucifixion of the 800[edit]

The Judean Civil War initially began after the conquest of Gaza by Jannaeus. Due to Jannaeus’ victory at Gaza, the Nabatean kingdom no longer controlled their trade routes to Rome and Damascus. Therefore Nabatean king Obodas I launched an attack on Judea in the Golan. Potentially, the war with the Nabateans was the last straw against a war-mongering king and an incompetent High Priest. After Jannaeus was defeated in battle against Obadas, he returned to fierce Jewish opposition in Jerusalem. A civil war broke out between Pharisaic supported Jewish rebels and Jannaeus.

Overall, the war lasted six years and left 50,000 Judeans dead. After Jannaeus succeeded early in the war, the rebels unbelievably asked for Seleucid assistance. Judean insurgents joined forces with Demetrius III Eucaerus to fight against Jannaeus. The Seleucid forces defeated Jannaeus at Schechem and forced him into exile in the mountains. However, these Judean rebels ultimately decided that it was better to live under a terrible Jewish king than backtrack to a Seleucid ruler. After 6,000 Jews returned to Jannaeus, Demetrius was defeated. The end of the Civil War brought a sense of national solidarity against Seleucid influence. Nevertheless, Jannaeus was uninterested in reconciliation within the Judean State.

The aftermath of the Judean Civil War consisted of popular unrest, poverty and grief over the fallen soldiers on both sides. The greatest impact of the war was the victor’s revenge. Josephus reports that Jannaeus brought 800 rebels to Jerusalem and had them crucified. Even worse, Jannaeus had the throats of the rebel’s wives and children cut before their eyes as Jannaeus ate with his concubines.

This incredible account is supported in the Dead Sea Scrolls. In the Nahum Pesher, the Judean Civil War and Jannaeus’ brutal retribution are specifically mentioned.

“(2) The interpretation of it concerns Demetrius, King of Greece, who sought to enter Jerusalem on the advice of the Seeker-After-Smooth-Things. (3) But God did not give Jerusalem into the power of the Kings of Greece from Antiochus until the rise of the rulers of the Kittim… (6b) Its interpretation concerns the Lion of Wrath (7) which will bring vengeance against the Seekers-After-Smooth-Things; he would hang men alive.”

In this passage, The Seekers-After-Smooth-Things represent the Jewish Rebels, the Lion of Wrath represents Alexander Jannaeus, and the rulers of Kittim signify the Roman Empire. Given that this passage mentions the Roman takeover, it was clearly written after the fall of the Hasmonean Dynasty. Nevertheless, substantiation of Josephus’ account of the crucifixion of Jewish rebels by Jannaeus quells any doubt of historicity of this event.

Coinage[edit]

The coinage of Alexander Jannaeus is characteristic of the early Jewish coinage in that it avoided human or animal representations, in opposition to the surrounding Greek, and later Roman types of the period. Jewish coinage instead focused on symbols, either natural, such as the palm tree, the pomegranate or the star, or man-made, such as the Temple, the Menorah, trumpets or cornucopia.

Coin of Alexander Jannaeus (103 BC to 76 BC).
Obv: Seleucid anchor and Greek Legend: BASILEOS ALEXANDROU "King Alexander".
Rev: Eight-spoke wheel or star within diadem. Hebrew legend inside the spokes: "Yehonatan the King".

Alexander Jannaeus was the first of the Jewish kings to introduce the "eight-ray star" or "eight-spoked wheel" symbol, in his bronze "Widow's mite" coins, in combination with the widespread Seleucid numismatic symbol of the anchor. Depending on the make, the star symbol can be shown with straight spokes connected to the outside circle, in a style rather indicative of a wheel. On others, the spokes can have a more "flame-like" shape, more indicative of the representation of a star within a diadem.

It is not clear what the wheel or star may exactly symbolize, and interpretations vary, from the morning star, to the sun or the heavens. The influence of some Persian symbols of a star within a diadem, or the eight-spoked Buddhist wheel (see the coins of the Indo-Greek king Menander I with this symbol) have also been suggested. The eight-spoked Macedonian star (a variation of which is the Vergina Sun), emblem of the royal Argead dynasty and the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, within a Hellenistic diadem symbolizing royalty (many of the coins depict a small knot with two ends on top of the diadem), seem to be the most probable source for this symbol.

The most likely explanation is that the symbol is a star encased in a diadem and it is a religious explanation. Biblical law forbids the making of graven images (especially see Deuteronomy 4:16,23), yet the image of a monarch is a staple of Hellenistic coins. In place of an image of himself, therefore, it is likely that Alexander Jannaeus chose a star, in keeping with Numbers 24:17, “A star rises from Jacob, a scepter comes forth from Israel.” This verse generally was seen as a biblical support for monarchy (and specifically as support for a Davidic monarchy). Jannaeus, however, could have seen it as an image of his achievements, if not his own rule. This is how the rest of Numbers 24:17 and verses 18 and 19 continue: The star, it says, “smashes the brow of Moab, the foundation of all children of Seth. Edom becomes a possession, yea, Seir a possession of its enemies; but Israel is triumphant. A victor issues from Jacob to wipe out what is left of Ir.” Considering Jannaeus’ conquests—creating a kingdom that rivaled those of David and Solomon and may have even exceeded those—the “star” envisioned in the prophecy of Balaam in Numbers was a perfect match for him.

In literature[edit]

Alexander Jannaeus is the main character of the novel The King of Flesh and Blood, (מלך בשר ודם) by Israeli novelist Moshe Shamir - a novel including many hints to the politic of 1950's Israel, when it was writtem.

As the husband of Queen Salome Alexandra, he is also a character in the novel Queen of the Jews by Judy Petsonk (2012).

Alexander Jannaeus and his wife Queen Alexandra are the main characters of Constantine Cavafy's poem[6] bearing their names. In the poem Cavafy notes the Hellenistic influence on the behavior of the couple.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mason, Charles Peter (1867). "Alexander, Jannaeus". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 117. 
  2. ^ a b c "Alexander Jannaeus", Jewish encyclopedia
  3. ^ Josephus, Jewish War (1.107-155)
  4. ^ Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land By Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 
  5. ^ "Hasmonean rule extended to Negev highlands", Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, December 10, 2009
  6. ^ C. P. Cavafy (1992). "Alexander Jannaios and Alexandra". Collected Poems. Edited by George Savidis. Translated by Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard. (Revised ed.) (Princeton University Press). 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Shachar, Ilan, "The Historical and Numismatic Significance of Alexander Jannaeus's Later Coinage as Found in Archaeological Excavations," Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 136,1 (April 2004), 5-33.

Other sources[edit]

  • "Jewish symbols on ancient Jewish coins" Paul Romanoff, New York American Israel Numismatic Association, 1971.
  • This article incorporates some content from the public domain 1911 edition of The New Century Book of Facts published by the King-Richardson Company, Springfield, Massachusetts. (This reference gives a death date of 78 BC, but consensus seems to be 76 BC.)

External links[edit]

Alexander Jannaeus of Judea
Died: 76 BC
Preceded by
Aristobulus I
King of Judea
103 BC – 76 BC
Succeeded by
Salome Alexandra
High Priest of Judea
103 BC – 76 BC
Succeeded by
Hyrcanus II