Alexander Vasilyevich Mosolov[n 1] (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Мосо́лов, tr. Aleksandr Vasil'evič Mosolov; 11 August [O.S. 29 July] 1900 – 11 July 1973) was a significant Russian composer of the early Soviet era, known best for his early futurist piano sonatas, orchestral episodes, and vocal music.
Mosolov studied at the Moscow Conservatory and achieved his greatest fame in the Soviet Union and around the world for his 1926 composition, Iron Foundry. Later conflicts with Soviet authorities led to his expulsion from the Composers' Union in 1936 and imprisonment in the Gulag in 1937. Following an early release, which had been argued for by his Conservatory teachers, Mosolov turned his attention to setting Turkmen and Kyrgyz folk tunes for orchestra. His later music conformed to the Soviet aesthetic to a much greater degree, but he never regained the success of his early career.
Mosolov's works include five piano sonatas (only four of which are extant), two piano concerti (only one movement exists of the second piano concerto), two cello concerti, a harp concerto, four string quartets, twelve orchestral suites, eight symphonies, and a substantial number of choral and voice pieces.
Mosolov was born to an upper-middle-class family in Kiev, in the Russian Empire. His mother, Nina Alexandrovna, was a professional singer at the Bolshoi Theater and a graduate of the Kiev school of music, and she gave Mosolov his first musical lessons. The family moved to Moscow in 1904. Mosolov's father, Vasiliy Alexandrovich, died a year later when Mosolov was five years old. After his father's death, Mosolov's mother married a successful painter and teacher, Mikhail Leblan. Young Mosolov was greatly impacted by the cosmopolitan lifestyle into which he was raised; both German and French were spoken in the home and the family took trips to Berlin, Paris, and London.
Mosolov attended high school until 1916, and in 1917 worked in the office of the People's Commissioner for State Control. Through this, he personally delivered mail to Vladimir Lenin three times, which had a profound impact on the young Mosolov. At the start of the Bolshevik Revolution, Mosolov volunteered in the Red Army's First Cavalry Regiment and fought on the Polish and Ukrainian fronts. He received the Order of the Red Banner on two occasions. He suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder due to the war and was medically discharged in July 1921. Mosolov entered the Moscow Conservatory, where he studied under Reinhold Glière until 1925; in that year he began composition studies under Nikolai Myaskovsky. He also studied piano under Grigoriy Prokofiev and Konstantin Igmunov. He graduated from the Conservatory in 1925 after presenting his graduation piece, the cantata Sphynx, based on the Oscar Wilde poem of the same name. That same year, he was granted membership in the Association for Contemporary Music (ACM).
Despite forays into composition, Mosolov's primary emphasis at this time was with performance, as he was an accomplished pianist. After the performance of his First String Quartet at the Frankfurt Festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM) on June 30, 1927 was met with critical acclaim, Mosolov shifted his focus to composition. He was appointed secretary of the Russian section of the ISCM in 1927 and 1928. In 1928 and 1929, Mosolov was commissioned by the Bolshoi Theater to compose a futurist imagination of what Moscow would be like in 2117 for a speculative ballet called The Four Moscows. Leonid Polovinkin, Anatoly Alexandrov, and Dmitri Shostakovich were also involved, each to compose Moscow in 1568, 1818, and 1918 respectively, but nothing ever came of the project.
After the onset of socialist realism as the official aesthetic of the Soviet Union in 1932, Mosolov traveled to Central Asia, where he researched and collected samples of Turkmen, Tajik, Armenian, and Kyrgyz songs. Mosolov became the first composer to create a symphonic suite on a Turkmen folk song. His settings of folk songs were met with criticism from Soviet arbiters. Rather than simply set the melodies in an orchestral setting, Mosolov used dense textures and polytonality that disregarded the style of socialist realism. In 1932 and in desperation, he wrote a letter to Joseph Stalin pleading for Stalin's influence. In his letter, Mosolov wrote, "Since 1926, I am an object of permanent badgering. Now, this has become insufferable. I must compose, and my works must be performed! I must test my works against the masses; if I come to grief, I'll know where I must go." He went further to ask for Stalin to "influence the proletarian musicians and their myrmidons, who have badgered me during the whole last year, and to allow me to work in the USSR" or "authorize my departure abroad, where I, with my music, could be more useful for the USSR than here, where I am harassed and badgered, where I'm not allowed to display my forces, to test myself."[n 2]
On February 4, 1936, Mosolov was expelled from the Composers' Union for treating waiters poorly and taking part in a drunken brawl in Press House, a local restaurant. After this, Mosolov traveled voluntarily to the Turkmen and Uzbek republics to collect folk songs as a form of rehabilitation. His attempts were unsuccessful, and he was arrested on November 4, 1937 for alleged counter-revolutionary activities under Article 58, Paragraph 10 of the Soviet criminal code and sentenced to eight years in the Gulag. He served in the prison from December 23, 1937 until August 25, 1938. Glière and Myaskovsky had sent a letter to Mikhail Kalinin, the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, arguing for Mosolov's release citing his turn towards realism, his "outstanding creative ability," and the fact that neither teacher had seen in Mosolov any anti-Soviet disposition. On July 15, 1938, Mosolov's sentence was commuted to a five-year exile—he could not live in Moscow, Leningrad, or Kiev until 1942. His quick release, having only served eight months of his eight-year sentence, was possible because he had been imprisoned not on political charges but on an overblown accusation of "hooliganism" brought by Mosolov's enemies in the Composers' Union.
When World War II broke out, Mosolov composed Signal, an opera which dealt with the war. However, the compositions of Mosolov's later life were so uncharacteristic of his earlier style that one scholar noted that it was "impossible to discern the former avant-gardist in the works written from the late thirties onward". Mosolov lived in Moscow and continued to compose until his death in 1973.
Mosolov's earliest music implies that Mosolov was influenced by German romanticism, but this influence waned as he began studying under Myaskovsky and Glière. In an early piece, "Four Songs," Op. 1, Mosolov explored the use of ostinato. Widespread use of ostinato became the defining signature of Mosolov's music: Iron Foundry is built of many ostinati working in tandem to create the sound of a factory, it is used in the Second and Fifth Piano Sonatas, etc.
Dissonance "in the extreme" and chromaticism are also Mosolov's signatures, though he stops short of the structured twelve-tone technique of Schoenberg. Instead of tone rows, Mosolov uses thickly-clustered, heavily chromatic chords to make his point. Folk music also saw use by Mosolov. As the first composer of a symphonic suite on a Turkmen folk song, Mosolov adopted the use of folk music before it was mandated under Socialist realism. His Second Piano Sonata incorporated Kyrgyz melodies, and his "Three Children's Scenes" utilized a city street song. However, instead of carefully setting the music for orchestra, Mosolov handled the music "like thematic grist for his compositional mill." This use of folk tunes continued after his Stalinist "rehabilitation." However, Mosolov's early works were marked by dense textures and polytonality that was lost after his expulsion and persecution.
- For a complete list, see List of compositions by Alexander Mosolov.
Among Mosolov's more notable pieces are his Four Newspaper Advertisements and Three Children's Scenes, written in 1926. In Four Newspaper Advertisements, Mosolov set four brief announcements in the newspaper Izvestiya to music. The topics of the four short pieces range from a lost dog to the announcement of a name change. In contrast, the text to Three Children's Scenes was written by Mosolov himself, and is much darker. The first, called "Mama, give me a needle, please!" is a short song in which the protagonist tortures a cat; the singer even mimics the screams of the cat, and the song ends with a sung shout of "A wicked creature!"
Mosolov's most famous composition, Iron Foundry, was originally the final movement of a ballet suite titled, Steel. The work premiered in Moscow on December 4, 1927, in a concert held by the ACM to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Revolution. Its Western debut was at the ISCM festival in Liège on September 6, 1930, and it came to America two months later when the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra held a performance. Although it was originally praised as "a mighty hymn to machine work" and as a piece that glorified industrialization and "the worker", as the years passed the piece began to receive criticism from increasingly conservative Soviet authorities. Some critics argued that the workers, ironically enough, didn't enjoy such music, while others argued that the workers, "for whom machine oil is mother's milk," were roused and inspired by music of their time. One critic found in the music "no organized will to victory, in fact very little besides the petty-bourgeois anarchy", while conceding that it was "striving to find an individual idiom"; another called it a "grossly formalistic perversion of a contemporary topic". Today, only Iron Foundry remains from Steel: the manuscripts were lost in 1929, the same year that Mosolov came under increased fire from Soviet authorities.
- Mosolov's name is transliterated variously and inconsistently between sources. Alternative spellings of Alexander include Alexandr, Aleksandr, Aleksander, and Alexandre; variations on Mosolov include Mossolov and Mossolow (as in German).
- "Я терплю травлю с 1926 года. Сейчас я больше ждать не хочу. Я должен сочинять и исполняться! Я должен проверять свои сочинения на массе; пусть это будут провалы, но я увижу, куда мне идти и как мне перестраиваться."
(Since 1926, I am an object of permanent badgering. Now, this has become insufferable. I must compose, and my works must be performed! I must test my works against the masses; if I come to grief, I'll know where I must go.)
"1. Либо воздействовать на ВАПМ и подвапмовцев в смысле прекращения моей травли, тянущейся уже целый год, и дать мне возможность работать в СССР. 2. Либо дать мне возможность уехать за границу, где я своей музыкой принесу гораздо больше пользы СССР. Чем здесь у нас, где меня гонят, травят, не дают возможность выявлять свои силы и проверять себя."
(Either influence the proletarian musicians and their myrmidons, who have badgered me during the whole last year, and to allow me to work in the USSR or authorize my departure abroad, where I, with my music, could be more useful for the USSR than here, where I am harassed and badgered, where I'm not allowed to display my forces, to test myself.)
- Rimsky, "Biograficheskiy ocherk," p. 9.
- Henck, "Piano works," n.p.
- Sitsky, "Man of Steel," p. 60.
- Rimsky, "Biograficheskiy ocherk," p. 10.
- Ewen, "Alexander Mossolov, 1900–," p. 178.
- Sitsky, "Man of Steel," p. 62.
- Edmunds, "Ambiguous Origins," n.p.
- Sitsky, "Man of Steel," p. 63.
- Hakobian, Music of the Soviet Age, p. 55n
- Yakub, "Interview with Edisson Denisov."
- Mosolov to Stalin, n.p.
- Kadlets, album notes, n.p.
- Mikkonen, State Composers, p. 253.
- Brooke, "Soviet Musicians," p. 409.
- Sitsky, "Man of Steel," p. 64.
- Taruskin, Defining Russia Musically, p. 92n19.
- Frolova-Walker, "National in Form," p. 336n8.
- Sitsky, "Man of Steel," p. 69.
- Lewis, "Alexander Vasil'yevich Mosolov," p. 882.
- Hakobian, Music of the Soviet Age, p. 51.
- O'Connell, "Alexander Mossolov," p. 337.
- Roberts, "Aleksandr Vasil'yevich Mosolov," p. 315.
- Leningrad Association of Contemporary Music, October and the New Music (1927). Quoted in Slonimsky, "Soviet Music and Musicians", p. 3.
- Ewen, "Alexander Mossolov, 1900–," n.p.
- Schwarz, "Opera, Ballet and Orchestral Music" n.p.
- Brooke, Caroline (2002). Clarke, Roger, ed. "Soviet Musicians and the Great Terror". Europe-Asia Studies 54 (3: May): 397–413. doi:10.1080/09668130220129533. ISSN 0966-8136. JSTOR 826483. OCLC 483537911.
- Edmunds, Neil (2004). Mikuláš Bek, Geoffrey Chew and Petr Macek, ed. "Socialist Realism and Music". Colloquia Musicologica Brunensia 36. Prague: KLP. pp. 115–130. ISBN 80-86791-18-1. OCLC 442697779.
- Ewen, David (1934). "Alexander Mossolov, 1900–". Composers of Today: A Comprehensive Biographical and Critical Guide to Modern Composers of All Nations. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 178–179. OCLC 2385387.
- Frolova-Walker, Marina (1998). Higgins, Paula, ed. "'National in Form, Socialist in Content': Musical Nation-Building in the Soviet Republics". Journal of the American Musicological Society 51 (2): 331–371. doi:10.1525/jams.1998.51.2.03a00040. ISSN 0003-0139. JSTOR 831980. OCLC 477569929.
- Hakobian, Levon (1998). Music of the Soviet Age: 1917–1987. Stockholm: Melos Music Literature. ISBN 978-91-972133-4-9. OCLC 2385387.
- Henck, Herbert; Michael Robinson (translator) (1996). "Piano works by Alexandr Mosolov". Alexandr Mosolov (booklet). Herbert Henck. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: ECM Records. 1569.
- Kadlets, Muza (1996). Mosolov: String Quartet No. 2, Violin Concerto, Other Works (booklet). Moscow Contemporary Music Ensemble. Japan: Triton. DMCC-26006 and 17004.
- Leningrad Association of Contemporary Music, October and the New Music (1927). Quoted in Slonimsky, Nicolas (December 1944). "Soviet Music and Musicians". Slavonic and East European Review 22 (4): 1–18. ISSN 0037-6795. JSTOR 3020186. OCLC 479303053.
- Lewis, Dave; Tyranny, Gene (2005). "Alexander Vasil'yevich Mosolov". In Brennan, Gerald; Schrott, Allen; Woodstra, Chris. All Music Guide to Classical Music. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. pp. 881–882. ISBN 978-0-87930-865-0. OCLC 456002195.
- Mikkonen, Simo (2007). State Composers and the Red Courtiers: Music, Ideology, and Politics in the Soviet 1930s (PDF) (Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Jyväskylä. ISBN 978-951-39-3015-8. OCLC 231196953.
- Mosolov, Alexander (2004). "Alexander Mosolov to Joseph Stalin, May 1932". In Russkiy avangard i tvorchestvo Aleksandra Mosolova 1920–1930-kh godov, by Igor Vorobev.[page needed] St. Petersburg: Kompozitor.
- O'Connell, Charles (1941). "Alexander Mossolov". The Victor Book of the Symphony. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 337. OCLC 563596721.
- Rimsky, L. (1986). "A. V. Mosolov: biograficheskiy ocherk" [A. V. Mosolov: Biographical Sketch]. A. V. Mosolov: Stati i vospominaniya [A. V. Mosolov: Articles and Reminiscences] (in Russian). comp. N. K. Meshko. Moscow: Sovetskii Kompozitor. pp. 8–43. OCLC 230838593.
- Roberts, Peter Deane (2002). "Aleksandr Vasil'yevich Mosolov (1900–1973)". In Sitsky, Larry. Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 314–319. ISBN 978-0-313-29689-5. OCLC 49226425.
- Schwarz, Boris (1983). "Opera, Ballet and Orchestral Music of the 1920s". Music and Musical Life in Soviet Russia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 61–87. ISBN 0-253-33956-1. OCLC 8826499.
- Sitsky, Larry (1994). "Aleksandr V. Mosolov: The Man of Steel". Music of the Repressed Russian Avant-Garde, 1900–1929. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 60–87. ISBN 978-0-313-26709-3. OCLC 28962473.
- Taruskin, Richard (2001). Defining Russia Musically: Historical and Hermeneutical Essays. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07065-0. OCLC 51313436.
- Vorobev, Igor (2006). Russkiy avangard i tvorchestvo Aleksandra Mosolova 1920–1930-kh godov [Russian avant-garde and the creativity of Alexander Mosolov in the 1920s-1930s]. St. Petersburg: Kompozitor. ISBN 978-5-7379-0310-7. OCLC 165065749.
- Yakub, Roman (2001). "Interview with Edisson Denisov". Ex Tempore (April 2). Retrieved April 28, 2010.