Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev)
Alexander Nevsky (Russian: Александр Невский) is the score for the 1938 Sergei Eisenstein film Alexander Nevsky, composed by Sergei Prokofiev. He later rearranged the music in the form of a cantata for mezzo-soprano, chorus, and orchestra, with text by the poet Vladimir Lugovskoy and Prokofiev. It has remained one of the most renowned cantatas of the 20th century.
Alexander Nevsky (film music)
The score was Prokofiev's third for a film, following Lieutenant Kijé (1934) and Pique Dame (1936). It was composed of 23 sections, and Prokofiev was heavily involved not just with the composition, but with the recording as well. He experimented with different microphone distances in order to achieve the desired sound. Horns meant to represent the Teutonic Knights, for instance, were played close enough to the microphones to produce a crackling, distorted sound. The brass and choral groups were recorded in different studios and the separate pieces were later mixed.
Prokofiev employed different sections of the orchestra, as well as different compositional styles, to evoke the necessary imagery. For instance, the Teutonic Knights (seen as the adversary) are represented by heavy brass instruments, playing discordant notes in a martial style. The sympathetic Russian forces are represented predominantly by folk-like instruments such as woodwind and strings, often playing quasi-folksong style music.
In 1993, the first commercial recording of the original film score was made for a new edition of the film, in which Prokofiev's score was entirely re-recorded by the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus conducted by Yuri Temirkanov. While the new version of the film was released in 1995, the score was recorded on March 16 and 17, 1993 in Philharmonic Hall, St. Petersburg and released on the RCA Victor Red Seal label. The first recording of the complete score, reconstructed from the original manuscripts, was recorded by in 2003 Frank Strobel conducting the Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin and released on Capriccio Records.
- The 13th Century
- Lake Plescheyevo – Song about Alexander Nevsky
- Novgorod – Part 1
- The Invaders in Pskov
- Arise, Russian people! Part 1
- Novgorod – Part 2
- Arise, Russian people! Part 2
- The camp of the invaders "Peregrinus expectavi"
- The battle on the ice – April 5, 1942
- -Shawms, invaders, and fighting
- The Field of the Dead
- Return to Pskov – Procession
- -The court
- -The fallen
- -"Our Homeland, great land of Russia!"
- Final Chorus
- The 13th Century
- Plescheyevo Lake (Song about Alexander Nevsky)
- Pskov in Flames
- Death to the Blasphemer! (Peregrinus expectavi)
- Arise, People of Russia
- The Teutonic Camp (Peregrinus expectavi)
- Nevsky's Camp: Night before the Battle
- The Battle on the Ice: April 5, 1242 (Peregrinus expectavi)
- The Battle on the Ice: Fight for Russia!
- The Battle on the Ice: Spears and Arrows (Peregrinus expectavi)
- The Battle on the Ice: The Duel with the Grand Master
- The Battle on the Ice: The Battle is Won
- The Battle on the Ice: The Ice Breaks
- The Field of the Dead
- Pskov: Procession of the Fallen and Judgement of the Prisoners
- And now let's celebrate!
- Final Chorus
Alexander Nevsky (cantata)
The cantata for Alexander Nevsky (Op. 78) debuted in Moscow on May 17, 1939. It was performed under the direction of Prokofiev, and like the film score was well received by the public. It is performed in seven movements, lasting approximately 40 minutes. It is sung in Russian, but Prokofiev utilized Latin for the third and fifth movements.
- "Russia under the Mongolian Yoke" – The opening movement begins slowly, and in C minor. It is meant to evoke an image of destruction, as brought to Russia by the invading Mongols.
- "Song about Alexander Nevsky" – This movement (B flat) represents Prince Alexander Yaroslavich's victory over the Swedish army at the Battle of the Neva in 1240. Alexander received the name 'Nevsky' (a form of Neva) in tribute.
- "The Crusaders in Pskov" – For this movement (C-sharp minor), Prokofiev's initial intention was to use genuine 13th century church music; however, the examples he found in the Moscow Conservatoire sounded so cold, dull and alien to the 20th century ear that he abandoned the idea and instead composed an original theme "better suited to our modern conception" to evoke the brutality of the Teutonic Knights.
- "Arise, ye Russian People" – This movement (E flat) represents a call to arms for the people of Russia. It is composed with folk overtones.
- "The Battle on the Ice" – The fifth (and longest) movement is arguably the climax of the cantata. It represents the final clash between Nevsky's forces and the Teutonic Knights on the frozen surface of Lake Peipus in 1242. The serene beginning (representing dawn on the day of battle) is contrasted by the jarring middle section, which is cacophonous in style.
- "The Field of the Dead" – Composed in C minor, the sixth movement is the lament of a girl seeking her lost lover, as well as kissing the eyelids of all the dead. The vocal solo is performed by a mezzo-soprano.
- "Alexander's Entry into Pskov" – The seventh and final movement (B flat) echoes the second movement in parts, and recalls Alexander's triumphant return to Pskov.
The work is scored for 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 soprano clarinets, bass clarinet, tenor saxophone, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, tambourine, maracas, wood blocks, triangle, tubular bells, tamtam, glockenspiel, xylophone, harp, strings, and chorus.
The Latin words chanted by the Teutonic knights—"Peregrinus expectavi, pedes meos in cymbalis (A pilgrim – I waited – my feet – upon the cymbals)"—seem at first sight to be meaningless. Prokofiev himself referred to the knights as "sing[ing] Catholic psalms, as they march into battle". The words are indeed from the Psalms, specifically from the Vulgate texts chosen by Igor Stravinsky for his 1930 Symphony of Psalms. An explanation for this choice may be found in the lifelong rivalry between the two Russian composers, specifically in the younger man (Prokofiev's) dismissal of Stravinsky's idiom as backward-looking "pseudo-Bachism", and his disdain for Stravinsky's choice to remain in western Europe, in contrast to Prokofiev's own return to Stalinist Russia in 1935. As has been observed by Dr Morag G. Kerr, then a soprano with the BBC Symphony Chorus, he may have felt a temptation to put the words of his long-time rival into the mouths of the one-dimensional Teutonic villains of Eisenstein's film.
The suggestion is implicitly accepted by the BBC: "Even their words are gibberish, with Prokofiev rather mischievously creating them by chopping up Latin texts from Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms and then randomly stringing them together".
The Latin Peregrinus phrase Prokofiev concocted ends with 'est' which is not found in Symphony of Psalms, but possibly is a pun on the first letters of Stravinsky's surname in Latin (Prokofiev enjoyed such games). Dr Kerr's observation is acknowledged as the first in print, and is accepted and developed.
The world premiere of the cantata took place on May 17, 1939, in Moscow. Sergei Prokofiev led the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus, with Valentina Gagrina, mezzo-soprano.
The American premiere took place on March 7, 1943 and was a broadcast performance of the NBC Symphony Orchestra and Westminster College Choir led by Leopold Stokowski, with Jennie Tourel as the soloist.
|Year||Conductor||Orchestra and choir||Soloist||Version|
|1949||Eugene Ormandy||Philadelphia Orchestra,
|Jennie Tourel (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata (English)|
|1959||Fritz Reiner||Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Rosalind Elias (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata (English)|
|1962||Thomas Schippers||New York Philharmonic Orchestra,
|Lili Chookasian (contralto)||Cantata|
|1971||André Previn||London Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Anna Reynolds (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1979||Leonard Slatkin||St. Louis Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Claudine Carlson (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1980||Claudio Abbado||London Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Yelena Obraztsova (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1984||Riccardo Chailly||Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus||Irina Arkhipova (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1987||André Previn||Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra,
Los Angeles Master Chorale
|Christine Cairns (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1988||Neeme Järvi||Scottish National Orchestra and Chorus||Linda Finnie (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1991||Dmitriy Kitayenko||Danish National Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Lyudmila Shemchuk (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1992||Charles Dutoit||Choeur et orchestre symphonique de Montréal||Jard van Nes (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1992||Kurt Masur||Gewandhausorchester Leipzig,
|Carolyn Watkinson (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1993||Eduardo Mata||Dallas Symphony Orchestra and Chorus||Mariana Paunova (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|1995||Yuriy Temirkanov||St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra,
Chorus of the St. Petersburg Teleradio Company,
Chamber Chorus of St. Petersburg,
St. Petersburg Chorus Capella "LIK"
|Yevgeniya Gorokhovskaya (mezzo-soprano)||Film score|
|2002||Valeriy Gergiev||Kirov Orchestra and Chorus of the Mariinsky Theatre||Olga Borodina (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|2002||Dmitriy Yablonskiy||Russian State Symphony Orchestra,
|Irina Gelakhova (mezzo-soprano)||Cantata|
|2003||Frank Strobel||Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin,
Ernst Senff Chor
|Marina Domashenko (mezzo-soprano)||Film score|
- The score of Alexander Nevsky is published by Schirmer, ISBN 0-634-03481-2
- Herbert Glass. "About the piece: Cantata, Alexander Nevsky, Op. 78". LA Phil. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Sergei Prokofiev, "Can There Be an End to Melody?", Pioneer magazine (1939), translation in Sergei Prokofiev, Autobiography, Articles, Reminiscences, compiled by S. Shlifstein, translated by Rose Prokofieva (Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 2000, ISBN 0-89875-149-7), 115–17 ).
- Sergei Prokofiev, Autobiography, Articles, Reminiscences, compiled by S. Shlifstein, translated by Rose Prokofieva (Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 2000, ISBN 0-89875-149-7),  61)
- Morag G. Kerr, "Prokofiev and His Cymbals", Musical Times 135 (1994), 608–609
- Daniel Jaffe, BBC Prom concert programme, 29 July 2006, page 17
- Simon Morrison, The people's artist: Prokofiev's Soviet years, OUP, 2009, 228–9, 448
- Olin Downes, "Stokowski Offers Prokofieff Work," New York Times (March 8, 1943), p. 10.
- Article from Three Oranges, the Journal of the Sergei Prokofiev Foundation, on the radio version of the Nevsky soundtrack.