He was born in the town Căinari, in Eastern Bessarabia, which was part of the Russian Empire, now in the Republic of Moldova. He studied at the theological school of Chişinău, and published his first poems (Ţăranii (Peasants), Eu cânt (I sing), Ţara (The Country)) in the newspaper Basarabia, where he also published two articles on Moldavian folklore. Mateevici later published several articles on religion in Moldavia.
Mateevici went on to study at the Theological Academy of Kiev, from which he graduated in 1914. In that year he married Teodora Borisovna Novitski. He returned to Chişinău, and became a Greek language teacher at the theological school.