|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
|Born||Alexei Anatolievich Navalny
June 4, 1976
Butyn, Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast
|Alma mater||Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation
|Known for||Political and social activism, blogging|
|Religion||Christianity (Russian Orthodox)|
|Awards||Yale World Fellow (2010)|
Alexei Anatolievich Navalny (Russian: Алексе́й Анато́льевич Нава́льный, born 4 June 1976) is a Russian lawyer and political and financial activist. Since 2009, he has gained prominence within Russia, and notably within the Russian media, as a critic of corruption in Russia, and especially of Russian leader Vladimir Putin. He has used his LiveJournal blog to organize large-scale demonstrations to address these issues. He also regularly writes articles in several Russian publications, such as Forbes Russia. In a 2011 interview with Reuters, he claimed that Putin's political system is so weakened by corruption that Russia could face an Arab Spring-style revolt within five years.
Navalny was named "Person of the Year 2009" by Russian business newspaper Vedomosti. In 2010, with the recommendation of Garry Kasparov, Yevgenia Albats, Sergei Guriev and Oleg Tsyvinski, Navalny enrolled in Yale University's six-month "Yale World Fellows" training program. In 2011, the BBC described Navalny as "arguably the only major opposition figure to emerge in Russia in the past five years". In 2012, The Wall Street Journal claimed he was "the man Vladimir Putin fears most". He was the only Russian to be named in Time magazine's 2012 list of the world's 100 most influential people. But also in 2012, a cumulative three embezzlement and fraud accusations were brought against Navalny by Russian federal authorities. All three have been vigorously denied by Navalny and are being fought.
Early life and career 
Navalny is of Russian/Ukrainian descent. His father Anatoliy Navalny comes from the village Zalissia in Ivankiv Raion, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Although Navalny grew up in Obninsk about 100 km southwest of Moscow, he spent his childhood summers at his grandmother in Ukraine.
Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 1998 with a law degree. He then studied securities and exchanges at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation.
In 2000, Navalny joined the Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko", where he was a member of the Federal Political Council of the party. In 2002, he was elected to the regional council of the Moscow branch of Yabloko.
As acting Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of Yabloko, Navalny stated that the party supported the nationalist 2006 Russian March being allowed to take place, due to the guarantee of freedom of assembly, but that Yabloko condemned "any ethnic or racial hatred and any xenophobia" and called on police to oppose "any Fascist, Nazi, xenophobic manifestations". The march was widely opposed by the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights and the Russian Jewish community headed by rabbi Berel Lazar, and was noted for its use of swastika symbols and participation from the Movement Against Illegal Immigration (the main organizer of the rally), the Eurasian Youth Union, the Communist Youth Vanguard, the National State Party of Russia, the National Patriotic Front "Memory", the "Truth" Community, the Russian National Union, the Russian Social Movement and the "Russian Order" Movement.
In December 2007, a meeting was held by the Bureau of the "Yabloko" party, on the issue of Navalny's exclusion from the party, with demands of "the immediate resignation of party chairman and all his deputies, and the re-election of at least 70% of the Bureau." Navalny was consequently expelled from Yabloko "for causing political damage to the party; in particular, for nationalist activities."
Navalny is a minor stockholder in several major Russian state-related corporations and some of his activities are aimed at making the financial properties of these companies transparent. This is required by law, but there are allegations that some of the top managers of these companies are involved in thefts and are obscuring transparency. Other activities deal with wrongdoings by Russian Militsiya, such as Sergei Magnitsky's case, improper usage of state's budget funds, quality of state services and so on.
In October 2010, Navalny was the decisive winner of virtual "Mayor of Moscow elections" held in the Russian Internet by Kommersant and Gazeta.ru. He received about 30,000 votes, or 45%, with the closest rival being "Against all candidates" with some 9,000 votes (14%), followed by Boris Nemtsov with 8,000 votes (12%) out of a total of about 67,000 votes.
In November 2010, Navalny published confidential documents about Transneft's auditing. According to Navalny's blog, about four billion dollars were stolen by Transneft's leaders during the construction of the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.
In December 2010, Navalny announced the launch of the RosPil project, which seeks to bring to light corrupt practices in the government procurement process. The project takes advantage of existing procurement regulation that requires all government requests for tender to be posted online. Information about winning bids must be posted online as well.
In February 2011, in an interview with the radio station finam.fm, Navalny called the main Russian party, United Russia, a "party of crooks and thieves". In May 2011, the Russian government began criminal investigation into Navalny, widely described in Western media as "revenge", and by Navalny himself as "a fabrication by the security services". Meanwhile, "crooks and thieves" became a popular nickname for the party.
In August 2011 Navalny publicized papers related to a scandalous real estate deal between Hungarian and Russian governments. According to the papers, Hungary sold a former embassy building in Moscow for $21mln to an offshore company of V.Vekselberg, who immediately resold it to the Russian government for $111mln. Irregularities in the paper trail implied a collusion. Three Hungarian officials responsible for the deal were detained in February 2011. It is unclear whether any official investigation was conducted on the Russian side.
Involvement in 2011 Russian legislative election 
In December 2011, after parliamentary elections and accusations of electoral fraud, some 6,000 gathered in Moscow to protest the fraud and some 300 were arrested including Navalny. After a period of uncertainty, Navalny was produced at court and thereafter sentenced to the maximum 15 days "for defying a government official. He plans to appeal the verdict." Alexei Venediktov called the arrest "'a political mistake: jailing Navalny transforms him from an online leader into an offline one.'" Navalny was kept in the same prison as several other activists, including Ilya Yashin and Sergei Udaltsov, the unofficial leader of the Vanguard of Red Youth, a radical Russian communist youth group. Udaltsov has gone on hunger strike to protest against the conditions.
Navalny was arrested 5 December 2011, convicted and sentenced to 15 days in jail. Since his arrest, his blog has become available in English. On December 7, President Dmitry Medvedev's official Twitter account retweeted a statement by United Russia member Konstantin Rykov which claimed that "a person who writes in their blog the words 'party of crooks and thieves' is a stupid, c*cksucking sheep". This retweet was quickly deleted and described as a mistake by the Kremlin, but garnered wide attention in the Russian blogosphere.
Involvement in 2012 Russian presidential election 
Navalny told reporters on his release that it would be senseless for him to run in the presidential elections because the Kremlin would not allow them to be fair. But he said that if free elections were held, he would "be ready" to run. He then on December 24 helped lead a demonstration much larger than the post-election one (50,000 strong, in one Western-media account), telling the "wildly cheering crowd": "I see enough people to take the Kremlin right now."
In March, after Putin was elected president, Navalny helped lead an anti-Putin rally in Moscow's Pushkin Square, attended by between 14,000 and 20,000 people. After the rally, Navalny was detained by authorities for several hours, then released.
On 8 May, the day after Putin was inaugurated, Navalny and another opposition leader, Sergei Udaltsov, were arrested after an anti-Putin rally at Clean Ponds, and were each given 15-day jail sentences. In response, Amnesty International designated the two men prisoners of conscience. On 11 June 2012, Moscow prosecutors conducted a 12 hour search of Navalny's home, office and a search of the apartment of one of Navalny's relatives. The searches were done as part of a broader investigation into the clashes between opposition activists and riot police which happened on the 6th of May. Soon afterward, some of Navalny's personal emails were posted online by a pro-government blogger.
Post-2012 election activity 
In May 2012, Navalny accused Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov of corruption, stating that companies owned by Roman Abramovich and Alisher Usmanov had transferred tens of millions of US dollars to Shuvalov's company, allowing Shuvalov to share in the profit from Usmanov's purchase of the British steel company Corus. Navalny posted scans of documents to his blog showing the money transfers. Usmanov and Shuvalov stated the documents Navalny had posted were legitimate, but that the transaction had not represented a violation of Russian law. Shuvalov stated, "I unswervingly followed the rules and principles of conflict of interest. For a lawyer, this is sacred."
On 4 June 2012, Navalny was ordered by Moscow's Lyublinsky District Court to pay 30 thousand rubles (about 900 USD) as compensation for "moral harm" to United Russia State Duma Deputy Vladimir Svirid, after Svirid filed charges against Navalny for comments he made in an article written for Esquire magazine about the United Russia party: "In United Russia, there are people I come across that I generally like. But if you have joined United Russia, you are still a thief. And if you are not a thief, then you are a crook, because you use your name to cover the rest of the thieves and crooks." Svirid had originally sought one million rubles in the case.
In July 2012, Navalny posted documents on his blog allegedly showing that Alexander Bastrykin, head of the Investigative Committee of Russia (SK) and a Putin ally, owned an undeclared business in the Czech Republic. The posting was described by the Financial Times as Navalny's "answering shot" for having had his emails leaked during his arrest in the previous month.
Following the alleged kidnapping and torture of opposition activist Leonid Razvozzhayev from Kiev, Ukraine, Navalny was arrested along with Sergei Udaltsov and Ilya Yashin while attempting to join a Moscow protest on Razvozzhayev's behalf on 27 October. The three were charged with violating public order, for which they could be fined up to 30,000 rubles (US$1,000) or given 50 hours of community service.
2012 embezzlement and fraud charges 
On 30 July 2012, the SK charged Navalny with embezzlement. The committee stated that he had conspired to steal timber from KirovLes, a state-owned company in Kirov Oblast, in 2009 while acting as an adviser to Kirov's governor Nikita Belykh. Investigators had closed a previous probe into the claims for lack of evidence. Navalny was released on his own recognizance but instructed not to leave Moscow.
Navalny described the charges as "weird" and without foundation. He stated that authorities "are doing it to watch the reaction of the protest movement and of Western public opinion ... So far they consider both of these things acceptable and so they are continuing along this line." His supporters protested before the SK offices.
Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt tweeted that "We should be concerned with attempts in Russia to silence fierce opposition activist Alexei @navalny." The New York Times called it "the Kremlin’s most direct measure to date against a leader of the protest movement that erupted here in December" and suggested that "the Kremlin’s eagerness to limit Mr. Navalny's impact now outweighs the risk of a political backlash". Al Jazeera described the charge as part of a broader trend of cracking down on dissent, connecting it to a recent bill in the Russian parliament to substantially increase fines on unauthorized protests and the trial of three members of the feminist punk-rock collective Pussy Riot.
In late December 2012, Russia's federal Investigative Committee asserted that Allekt, an advertising company headed by Mr. Navalny, defrauded the Union of the Right Forces (SPS) political party in 2007 by taking $3.2m (ruble equivalent) payment for advertising and failing to honor its contract. If charged and convicted, Navalny could be jailed for up to 10 years. "Nothing of the sort happened - he committed no robbery”, Leonid Gozman, a former SPS official, was quoted as saying. Earlier in December, "the Investigative Committee charged ... Navalny and his brother Oleg with embezzling 55m roubles [US$1.76m] in 2008-11 while working in a postal business". Navalny, who denied the allegations in the two previous cases, sought to laugh off news of the third inquiry with a tweet starting "Fiddlesticks ...".
In April 2013, Loeb&Loeb LLP issued "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny", a paper detailing Investigative Committee accusations. The paper concludes that "the Kremlin has reverted to misuse of the Russian legal system to harass, isolate and attempt to silence political opponents".
Presidential candidacy 
According to polls conducted by the Levada Center, Navalny's recognition among the Russian population stood at 37% as of April 2013. Out of those who recognize Navalny, 14% would either "definitely" or "probably" support his presidential run. On the other hand, 66% of those who recognize Navalny said they would never support his presidential bid.
Navalny is married with two children.
Awards and honors 
In 2011 Foreign Policy magazine named Navalny to the FP Top 100 Global Thinkers, along with Daniel Domscheit-Berg and Sami Ben Gharbia of Tunisia, for "shaping the new world of government transparency". FP picked him again in 2012.
See also 
- Carl Schreck (9 March 2010). "Russia's Erin Brockovich: Taking On Corporate Greed". Time. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Guy Faulconbridge and Maria Tsvetkova (1 June 2011). "Putin's Russia could face revolt: whistleblower". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Персоны года — 2009: Частное лицо года". Vedomosti (in Russian). 30 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Калинина, Юлия (10 июня 2011). "Блог накажет". Moskovskij Komsomolets. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. "Меня исключили за то, что я говорил, что Явлинский должен идти в отставку"
- Собчак, Ксения Анатольевна; Соколова, Ксения Янисовна (24 февраля 2011). "Проблема бабла и зла". GQ. Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2011-12-12404.
- "Yale World Fellows Program". Yale University. Archived from the original on 2012-08-05.
- Stephen Ennis (21 December 2011). "Profile: Russian blogger Alexei Navalny". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Matthew Kaminski (3 March 2012). "The Man Vladimir Putin Fears Most (the weekend interview)". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Garry Kasparov (18 April 2012). "Alexei Navalny". Time. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- ""Russian opposition leader Navalny faces third inquiry"". Archived from the original on 2013-04-17., BBC, 24 December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Igor Rozin (8 April 2013). "Opposition leader Navalny announces presidential ambitions". Russia & India Report. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Sergei Hrabovsky. "Олексій Навальний як дзеркало російської революції" (in Ukrainian). day.kiev.ua. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "АЛЕКСЕЙ НАВАЛЬНЫЙ" (in Russian). esquire.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Alexei Navalny". The Moscow Times. 28 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-02-04. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Guy Faulconbridge (11 December 2011). "NEWSMAKER-Protests pitch Russian blogger against Putin". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Navalny, Alexey Anatolich" (in Russian). Kommersant. Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- "About Navalny" (in Russian). navalny.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-08-05. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "SvobodaNews.ru Московское «Яблоко» поддержало проведение «Русского марша»". Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Argued as following: "It is clearly stated in the preamble of our declaration that the Yabloko Party thoroughly and sharply opposes any national and racial discord and any xenophobia. However in this case, when we know... that the Constitution guarantees to us the right to gather peacefully and without a weapon, we see that in these conditions the prohibition of the Russian March as it was announced, provokes the organisers to some activities which could end not so good. Thus we appeal to the Moscow city administration... for permission..."
- "Human rights activist protests far-right march in Moscow". En.rian.ru. 17 October 2006. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Russian chief rabbi supports ban on November 4 March". Interfax-religion.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-26. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Наталья Холмогорова. ''Пробуждение: Русский марш 4 ноября''". Specnaz.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-01-09. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "РИА Новости – Справки – "Русский марш". События прошлого года". Rian.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Navalny, Alexey". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Ilya Azarov (15 December 2007). ""Яблоко" откатилось" (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Nataliya Vasilyeva (1 April 2010). "Activist presses Russian corporations for openness". Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Выборы мэра Москвы". Gazeta.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Как пилят в Транснефти" (in Russian). LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Russia checks claims of $4bn oil pipeline scam". BBC News. 17 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Soldatkin, Vladimir (14 January 2011). "Russia's Transneft denies $4 bln theft". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Alexey Navalny (29 December 2010). "RosPil". Navalny Live Journal Blog (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Tom Parfitt (10 May 2011). "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny faces criminal investigation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Catherine Belton (10 May 2011). "Russia Targets Anti-Graft Blogger". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2013-01-24. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Alexander Bratersky (11 May 2011). "Navalny Targeted in Fraud Inquiry". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Daniel Sandford (30 November 2011). "Russians tire of corruption spectacle". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Alexey Navalny (30 May 2011). "RosYama" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-11. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Bálint Ablonczy (23 July 2012). "It's ugly, but it was ours". Hetivalasz. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Инновационные технологии: как это работает на самом деле (in Russian). Navalny.Live Journal. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Andy Potts (21 February 2011). "Vekselberg faces questions over Hungarian property fraud". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-31. Retrieved 31 February 2012.
- "http://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/ceweekly/2011-02-16/hungary-detentions-linked-to-sale-property-moscow". Archived from the original on 2012-09-11.
- Julia Ioffe (5 December 2011). "Russian Elections: Faking It". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Julia Ioffe (6 December 2011). "Putin's Big Mistake?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Tom Parfitt (17 December 2011). "Vladimir Putin's persecution campaign targets protest couple". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "The Blog on Navalny in English". LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Miriam Elder (7 December 2011). "Medvedev 'tweet' sends the Russian blogosphere into a frenzy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Guy Faulconbridge (20 December 2011). "Navalny challenges Putin after leaving Russian jail". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Fred Weir (24 December 2011). "Huge protest demanding fair Russian elections hits Moscow". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Russia election: Police arrest 550 at city protests". BBC News. 5 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Police keep anti-Putin protesters on the run". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 8 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-02-10. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Amnesty Calls Navalny, Udaltsov 'Prisoners Of Conscience'". Radio Free Europe. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- ""Homes of Russian opposition figures searched ahead of rally"". Archived from the original on 2013-02-02.. RT.com. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Charles Clover (26 July 2012). "Blogger strikes at Putin with data release". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2013-01-24. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Andrew E. Kramer (March 30, 2012). "Activist Presses for Inquiry Into Senior Putin Deputy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "Russian whistleblower accuses Putin's investment czar of multimillion dollar corruption". Associated Press. The Washington Post. March 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- ""Navalny Must Pay for 'Crooks and Thieves' Comment"". Archived from the original on 2013-02-04. The Moscow Times. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Maria Tsvetkova and Gleb Bryanski (27 October 2012). "Russia activists detained after opposition council meets". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Russian blogger Navalny charged with embezzlement". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Putin critic Navalny charged with theft". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny
- "http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-22172224". Archived from the original on 2013-04-17.
- "Anti-Kremlin Figure Navalny Sets Sights on Presidency". RIA Novosti. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Opposition blogger Navalny voices presidential ambitions amid dwindling support". RT. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Volkov, Dennis (5 April 2013). "Analysis of Navalny's Ratings". Levada Center. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Stepan Kravchenko (5 April 2013). "Putin, Allies Threatened With Jail as Navalny to Seek Presidency". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "The World Fellows: Alexey Navalny". Yale University. Archived from the original on 2012-08-05. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Alexei Navalny|
|Wikinews has related news: Russia's main airport faces high danger from dump birds|
- Navalny's site (Russian)
- Navalny's blog (Russian)
- Navalny's page for the Yale World Fellows Program (English)
- Navalny's blog translated to English, since 6-Dec-2011 (English)
- His project to fight corruption (Russian)