Alfonsism

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The term Alfonsism refers to the movement in Spanish monarchism that supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII of Spain as King of Spain after the foundation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931.[1] The Alfonsists competed with the rival monarchists, the Carlists, for the throne of Spain.[1]

Politically, before 1923, Alfonso XIII and his supporters had generally supported liberal democracy alongside Catholic traditionalism with a minority authoritarian wing as well, including support of Charles Maurras' conception of monarchy.[2] After the overthrow of the monarchy, Alfonsists began to adapt authoritarian elements from Italian Fascism, Action Française, and Portuguese Integralism into their cause.[2]

After the overthrow of the monarchy of Alfonso XIII, Alfonsist supporters formed the Renovación Española, a monarchist political party, which held considerable economic influence and had close supporters in the Spanish army.[3] Renovación Española did not, however, manage to become a mass political movement.[3] Alfonso XIII had alienated the Union Monárquica Nacional political party by deposing Miguel Primo de Rivera as Prime Minister.[3] The Alfonsists received little support outside of their clique of well-established supporters, while their rivals, the Carlists, soared to become a mass movement in Spain.[4] Renovación Española cooperated with the fascist Falange party led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, hoping to coopt it as a tool for the party's objectives.[2] In 1937, the Alfonsists of Renovación Española joined alongside the Falange, the Carlist traditionalists, and CEDA under Francisco Franco's directive to form a united National Movement in the Spanish Civil War, which was known as the Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive (FET-JONS).[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blinkhorn, Martin (1975). Carlism and crisis in Spain, 1931-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 69. 
  2. ^ a b c Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 127.
  3. ^ a b c Andrew Forrest. The Spanish Civil War. London, England, UK; New York, USA: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 10.
  4. ^ Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 133.
  5. ^ Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives. 2nd ed. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 133-134.