Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori
Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori
|Bishop of Sant’Agata de’ Goti|
Founder of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer.
|Diocese||Sant'Agata de' Goti|
|See||Sant'Agata de' Goti|
|Appointed||14 June 1762|
|Installed||20 June 1762|
|Term ended||26 June 1775|
|Successor||Onofrio de Rossi|
|Ordination||21 December 1726|
|Consecration||20 June 1762
by Ferdinando Maria de Rossi
27 September 1696|
Marianella, Campania, Kingdom of Naples
|Died||1 August 1787
Pagani, Campania, Kingdom of Naples
|Venerated in||Catholic Church|
|Title as Saint||Bishop, Moral Theologian, Confessor and Doctor of the Church|
|Beatified||15 September 1816
Rome, Papal States
by Pope Pius VII
|Canonized||26 May 1839
Rome, Papal States
by Pope Gregory XVI
|Patronage||Pagani, Cancello, Naples (co-patron); arthritis, confessors, moralists|
|Ordination history of Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori|
|Date of ordination||21 December 1726|
|Principal consecrator||Ferdinando Maria de Rossi|
|Date of consecration||20 June 1762|
He founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the Redemptorists). In 1762 he was appointed Bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti. A prolific writer, he published nine editions of his Moral Theology in his lifetime, in addition to other devotional and ascetic works and letters. Among his best known works are The Glories of Mary and The Way of the Cross, the latter still used in parishes during Lenten devotions.
He was canonized in 1839 by Pope Gregory XVI. Pope Pius IX proclaimed him a Doctor of the Church in 1871. One of the most widely read Catholic authors, Alphonsus Ligouri is the patron saint of confessors.
Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori was born in Marianella, near Naples, then part of the Kingdom of Naples. He was the eldest of eight children of Giuseppe and Anna Cavalieri Liguori. Two days after he was born he was baptized at the Church of Our Lady the Virgin as Alphonsus Mary Antony John Cosmas Damian Michael Gaspard de' Liguori. The family was an old and noble one, though the branch to which the Saint belonged had become somewhat impoverished. Alphonsus's father, Don Joseph de' Liguori was a naval officer and Captain of the Royal Galleys. His mother was of Spanish descent.
Liguori learned to ride and fence, but was never a good shot due to poor eyesight. Myopia and chronic asthma precluded a military career, so his father had him educated for the legal profession. He was taught by tutors before entering the University of Naples, where he graduated with doctorates in civil and canon law at age sixteen. He remarked later that he was so small at the time as to be almost buried in his doctor's gown and that all the spectators laughed. He became a successful lawyer. He was thinking of leaving the profession, and wrote to someone: "My friend, our profession is too full of difficulties and dangers; we lead an unhappy life and run risk of dying an unhappy death." At the age of twenty-seven, after having lost an important case—the first he had lost in eight years of practicing law—he made a firm resolution to leave the profession of law.
In 1723, he decided to offer himself as a novice to the Oratory of St. Philip Neri with the intention of becoming a priest. His father opposed this plan, but after two months (and with his Oratorian confessor's permission), he and his father compromised: he would study for the priesthood, but not as an Oratorian and while living at home. He was ordained on 21 December 1726, at the age of 30. He lived his first years as a priest with the homeless and marginalized youth of Naples. He founded the Evening Chapels which were managed by the young people themselves. These chapels were centers of prayer and piety, preaching, community, social activities, and education. At the time of his death, there were 72 of these chapels with over 10,000 active participants. His sermons were very effective at converting those who were alienated from their faith.
Liguori suffered from scruples much of his adult life, and felt guilt about the most minor issues relating to sin. Moreover, the saint viewed scruples as a blessing at times, he wrote: "Scruples are useful in the beginning of conversion....they cleanse the soul, and at the same time make it careful".
In 1729, Alphonsus left his family home and took up residence in the Chinese Institute in Naples. It was there that he began his missionary experience in the interior regions of the Kingdom of Naples where he found people who were much poorer and more abandoned than any of the street children in Naples. In 1731, while ministering to earthquake victims in the town of Foggia, Alphonsus claimed to have had vision of the Virgin Mother under the appearance of a young girl of thirteen or fourteen, wearing a white veil.
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer
On 9 November 1732, Alphonsus founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, when Sister Maria Celeste Crostarosa told him that it had been revealed to her that he was the one God had chosen to found the congregation. Its goal was to teach and preach in the slums of cities and other poor places. They also fought Jansenism, a doctrine that barred many Catholics from receiving the Eucharist because of its excessive moral rigor.
Alphonsus was consecrated Bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti in 1762. He tried to refuse the appointment, proposing his age and infirmities as arguments against his consecration. During this time he wrote sermons, books, and articles to encourage devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Virgin Mary. His first order of business was to address ecclesiastical abuses in the diocese, reform the seminary and spiritually rehabilitate the clergy and faithful.
In 1775, he was allowed to retire from his office and went to live in the Redemptorist community in Pagani, Italy, where he died on 1 August 1787.
Veneration and legacy
In 1949, the Redemptorists founded the Alphonsian Academy for the advanced study of Catholic moral theology. He was named patron of confessors and moral theologians by Pope Pius XII on 26 April 1950, who subsequently wrote of him in the encyclical Haurietis aquas.
Alphonsus was a prolific and popular author. He was proficient in the arts, his parents having had him trained by various masters, and was a musician, painter, poet, and author at the same time. Alphonsus wrote 111 works on spirituality and theology. The 21,500 editions and the translations into 72 languages that his works have undergone attest to the fact that he is one of the most widely read Catholic authors.
Alphonsus' greatest contribution to the Church was in the area of moral theology. This was born of Alphonsus' pastoral experience, his ability to respond to the practical questions posed by the faithful and from his contact with their everyday problems. He opposed sterile legalism and strict rigorism. According to Alphonsus, those were paths closed to the Gospel because "such rigor has never been taught nor practiced by the Church". His system of moral theology is noted for its prudence, avoiding both laxism and excessive rigor. He is credited with the position of Aequiprobablism, which avoided Jansenist rigorism as well as laxism and simple probablism.
His Mariology, though mainly pastoral in nature, rediscovered, integrated and defended the Mariology of Saint Augustine and Saint Ambrose and other fathers and represented an intellectual defence of Mariology in the 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, against the cold rationalism to which his often flaming Marian enthusiasm contrasted.
- The Glories of Mary
- Marian Devotion
- Prayers to the Divine Mother
- Spiritual Songs
- The True Spouse of Jesus Christ
- Great Means of Salvation and of Perfection
- The Way of Salvation and of Perfection
- The Way of the Cross,
- The Incarnation, Birth and Infancy of Jesus Christ
- The Holy Eucharist
- Victories of the Martyrs
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 99
- "St. Alphonsus Liguori", Liguori Publications
- Castle, Harold (2007). "St. Alphonsus Liguori". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- Tannoja, Antonio. "The life of St. Alphonsus Maria de Liguori" (1855)John Murphy & Co., Baltimore, 1855
- Miller, D.F. and Aubin, L.X., St. Alphonsus Liguori, Tan Books, 2009, ISBN 9780895553294
- Selected writings by Saint Alfonso Maria de' Liguori, 1999 ISBN 0-8091-3771-2 p. 209
- The true spouse of Jesus Christ: The complete works of Saint Alphonsus de Liguori 1929,Redemptorist Fathers Press, ASIN B00085J4WM, p. 545
- "Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori", St. Alphonsus Liguori Parish, Peterborough, Ontario
- "Alphonsus Maria de Liguori", Saint Alphonsus Mary de Liguori Parish, Makati City Philippines
- P Hitz, Alfons v. Liguori, Paterborn 1967, p. 130.
- Liguori, Alphonsus, The Glories of Mary, P.J.Kenedy & Sons, New York, 1888
- Liguori, Alphonsus. The True Spouse of Jesus Christ, Eugene Grimm, ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1888
- Liguori, Alphonsus. Great Means of Salvation and of Perfection, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Borthers, New York, 1886
- Liguori, Alphonsus. The Way of Salvation and of Perfection, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887
- Liguori, Alphonsus. The Incarnation, Birth and Infancy of Jesus Christ, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1886
- Liguori, Alphonsus. The Holy Eucharist, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887
- Liguori, Alphonsus. Victories of the Martyrs, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori|
Media related to Alphonsus Maria de Liguori at Wikimedia Commons
- Saints Books, E-Book Library of the Works of St. Alphonsus Maria de Liguori
- Liguori, Alphonsus. Sermons for all the Sundays in the Year, translated by Nicholas Callan D.D., James duffy & Sons, Dublin, 1882
- Liguori, Alphonsus. The Holy Mass, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887
- Liguori, Alphonsus. Preaching, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1887
- Liguori, Alphonsus. Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Eugene Grimm ed., Benziger Brothers, New York, 1889
- "Tu scendi dalle stele", Pavarotti