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Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart, Orat. (6 January 1859 – 19 May 1942) was a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris from 1907 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935.
Baudrillart was born in Paris, to Henri Baudrillart and Marie Sacy. His father was professor of political economy at Collège de France, editor in chief of the Journal des Économistes, and a member of Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Baudrillart's maternal grandfather, Samuel Ustazade de Sacy, was redactor in chief of the Journal des débats and a member of the Académie française.
Raised in the Latin Quarter, Baudrillart entered École Bossuet in 1868, and later the Collège Louis le Grand. In 1876, at the age of seventeen, he decided to pursue a career in the Church. After studying at the Catégory: in Paris, Baudrillart attended the Catholic Institute of Paris from 1878 to 1881. He earned his doctorate with a thesis entitled Philippe V et la Cour de France, and joined the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri in 1890.
Baudrillart was ordained to the priesthood in Paris on 9 July 1893, at the relatively late age of 34. He then served as professor of history at the Institut Catholique from 1894 to 1907, when he was named its rector; he would remain in this position until his death thirty-five years later. Founding the Revue practique d'apologetique in 1905, he was the director of Bulletin critique from 1898 to 1908, having previously served as a collaborator from 1891 to 1897. Baudrillart served as General Assistant of his society of apostolic life from 1898 to 1908, and again from 1919 to 1921. He was made an honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Paris in 1906, and a Domestic prelate of His Holiness on 17 April 1907. On 10 October 1908, he became Vicar General of Paris. He was elected as a member of the Académie française, like his grandfather, on 2 May 1918.
On 29 July 1921, Baudrillart was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Paris and Titular Bishop of Hemeria by Pope Benedict XV. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 28 October from Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, with Bishops Stanislas Touchet and Joseph-Marie Tissier serving as co-consecrators, in Notre-Dame Cathedral. Baudrillart was later advanced to Titular Archbishop of Melitene on 12 April 1928.
Pope Pius XI created him Cardinal Priest of S. Bernardo alle Terme in the consistory of 16 December 1935. Baudrillart was one of the cardinal electors in the 1939 papal conclave, which selected Pope Pius XII. He was close friends with General Maurice Gamelin, whom Baudrillart had once taught.
Baudrillart was a familiar figure in salons and member of the French social elite.
Baudrillart initially supported the Vichy government of Marshal Philippe Pétain, along with Cardinal Suhard, and in August 1941 - as a fervent anti-communist - even supported the creation of a Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism; however in early 1942 he openly protested in public against the anti-Semitic measures of the Vichy government in shops and theatres; he also decried the Hitler regime as unhuman (in private conversation). He was however strongly opposed to British diplomacy and military action.Baudrillart's private opposition inspired Cardinal Suhard to publish his Open Protest against the deportation of Jews in July, 1942.
The Cardinal died in Paris, at age 83. He was solemnly buried in the chapel Des Carmes at the Catholic Institute (Institut Catholique).
- Baudrillart, Alfred, and Paul Christophe. Les carnets du cardinal Baudrillart. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1994. ISBN 9782204071130
- "Good Grey General". Time. 14 August 1939. Retrieved 22 June 2012.