Alfred O. C. Nier
|Alfred O. C. Nier|
Nier in 1940 holding a glass mass spectrometer chamber.
|Born||Alfred Otto Carl Nier
May 28, 1911
St. Paul, Minnesota
|Died||May 16, 1994
Hennepin County Medical Center
|Institutions||University of Minnesota|
Alfred Otto Carl Nier (May 28, 1911 - May 16, 1994) was an American physicist who pioneered the development of mass spectrometry. He was the first to use mass spectrometry to isolate uranium-235 which was used to demonstrate that 235U could undergo fission and developed the sector mass spectrometer configuration now known as Nier-Johnson geometry.
Born St. Paul, Minnesota, Nier showed an early ability in mathematics and science, coupled with an aptitude for craft and mechanical work. Nier's German immigrant parents had little education or financial resources but their determination for his development meant that he was able to attend the nearby University of Minnesota. Though he graduated in electrical engineering in 1931, the lack of engineering jobs during the Great Depression encouraged him to take up graduate study in physics. Nier's graduate research started his involvement in mass spectrometry.[verification needed]
In 1936, his spectroscopic skills won him a fellowship and substantial grant at Harvard University. His work there led to the 1938 publication of measurements of the relative abundance of the isotopes of uranium, measurements that were used by Fritz Houtermans and Arthur Holmes in the 1940s to estimate the age of the Earth.
The Manhattan Project
Nier returned to Minnesota in 1938 to be near his ageing parents. In 1940, on the request of Enrico Fermi, he and a few students, including Edward Ney, prepared a pure sample of uranium-235 using an early mass spectrograph designed by Nier, for John R. Dunning's team at Columbia University. On the day of its receipt (it was sent by US Postal Mail), Dunning's team was able to demonstrate that U-235 was the isotope responsible for nuclear fission, rather than the more abundant uranium-238. Confirmation of this suspected fact was a critical step in the development of the atomic bomb.
From 1943 to 1945, Nier worked with Kellex Corporation in New York on the design and development of efficient and effective mass spectrographs for use in the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb in World War II. During the war most of the spectrographs used for monitoring uranium separations were designed by Nier.
After the war, he returned to Minnesota where he worked on geochronology, the upper atmosphere, space science and noble gases. Nier designed the miniature mass spectrometers used by the Viking Landers to sample the atmosphere of Mars.
The Martian crater Nier  and the mineral nierite (tiny silicon nitride inclusions in meteorites) were named after him. The Nier Prize is awarded annually by the Meteoritical Society and recognizes outstanding research in meteoritics and closely allied fields by young scientists.
- Johnson, W.; Nier, A. (1957). "Atomic Masses in the Region Xenon to Europium". Physical Review 105 (3): 1014–1023. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.105.1014. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Reynolds (1998)
- Lewis, Cheryl (2000). The Dating Game. Cambridge University Press. pp. 202–208.
- "Nier Mass Spectrograph". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- Hilchey, Tim (May 19, 1994). "Alfred Nier, 82; Physicist Helped Foster A-Bomb". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-06. "Alfred O. C. Nier, a physicist at the University of Minnesota whose early work on lead and uranium isotopes helped determine the age of the earth and usher in the atomic age, died on Monday in Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis. He was 82. He died from injuries suffered in an automobile accident on May 2 near his home in Roseville, Minn., a suburb of St. Paul, said Dr. Edward Ney, an emeritus professor of physics and astronomy at the university."
- Mauersberger (1999)
- "Mars Nomenclature: Crater, craters". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS: Astrogeology Research Program. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
- Lee, M. R.; Russell, S. S.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T. (1995). "Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites". Meteoritics 30 (4): 387. Bibcode:1995Metic..30..387L. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1995.tb01142.x.
- Minneapolis Star Tribune, May 17, 1994;
- St. Paul Pioneer Press, May 17, 1994;
- Pepin, R. and P. Signer (1994). "Memorial: Alfred O. C. Nier (1911-1994)". Meteoritics 29: 747–48. Bibcode:1994Metic..29..747P. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1994.tb00794.x.;
- Pepin, R. (1995). "Obituary: Alfred O.C. Nier, 1912-1994". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 27 (4): 1481–1482..
- Arblaster, J. W. (2004). "The Discoverers of the Osmium Isotopes". Platinum Metals Review 48 (4): 174. doi:10.1595/147106704x4826..
- [Anon.] (1980) "Alfred Otto Carl Nier, American physicist", in Sybil P. Parker, editor-in-chief. (1980). McGraw-Hill Modern Scientists and Engineers (3 vols ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 361–363. ISBN 0-07-045266-0.
- De Laeter, J. & Kurz, M. D. (2006). "Alfred Nier and the sector field mass spectrometer". Journal of Mass Spectrometry 41 (7): 847–854. doi:10.1002/jms.1057.
- Grayson, Michael A. (1992). "Professor Al Nier and his influence on mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 3 (7): 685–694. doi:10.1016/1044-0305(92)87081-9. ISSN 1044-0305.
- Mauersberger, K. (1999). "Alfred O. C. Nier" (pdf). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 143 (4): 685–691.
- Moore, M. P. (1991). "Alfred O. C. Nier: Physicist-gadgeteer extraordinaire". University of Minnesota Research Review: April.
- Nier, A. O. C. (1989). "Some reminiscences of mass spectrometry and the Manhattan Project". Journal of Chemical Education 66 (5): 385–388. Bibcode:1989JChEd..66..385N. doi:10.1021/ed066p385.
- Nier, A. O. (1990). "Some reflections on the early days of mass spectrometry at the University of Minnesota". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes 100: 1–13. Bibcode:1990IJMSI.100....1N. doi:10.1016/0168-1176(90)85063-8.
- Reynolds, J. H. (1998). "Alfred Otto Carl Nier". Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
- Annotated Bibliography for Alfred O.C. Nier from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- "Nier Mass Spectrograph". National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
- "Alfred Nier (in 1964) at his mass spectrograph which he used to separate a sample of U-235". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- "Alfred and Ardis Nier at Nier's retirement party". Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. American Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
- "Nier, Verbrugge and Newbury". Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. American Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-08-16.