Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach
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Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (13 August 1907 – 30 July 1967), often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.
He was convicted after World War II of crimes against humanity for the way he operated his factories; served three years in prison, and was pardoned.
The family company, known formally as Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp, was a key supplier of weapons and materiel to the Nazi regime and the Wehrmacht during World War II. In 1943, Krupp became sole proprietor of the company, following the Lex Krupp ("Krupp Law") decreed by Adolf Hitler. Krupp's wartime employment of slave labor, resulted in the "Krupp Trial" of 1947–1948, following which he served three years in prison.
|Olympic medal record|
|Competitor for Germany|
|Bronze||1936 Berlin||8 Meter Class|
Family and early life
Krupp's mother, Bertha Krupp, inherited the company in 1902 at the age of 16 when her father, Friedrich Krupp, committed suicide. In October 1906, Bertha married Alfried's father, Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, a German diplomat and member of the nobility, who subsequently added the Krupp name to his own by permission of Emperor William II. Alfried was born almost a year later.
The company profited significantly from the German re-armament of the 1920s and 1930s. Gustav Krupp, in spite of his initial opposition to the Nazi Party, made significant personal donations to it before the 1933 election because he saw advantages for the company in the Nazis' militarism and opposition to independent trade unions.
In 1936, after undergoing financial training at the Dresdner Bank, Krupp joined the family company. The following year he married Anneliese Lampert, née Bahr (1909–1998) and a son, Arndt, was born in 1938. His family disapproved and their pressure may have influenced the divorce that followed soon afterwards.
World War II
Alfried became more active in controlling the company as his father's health declined. He became de facto head of the firm in 1941 when Gustav Krupp suffered a stroke. Under Alfried, the company used slave labor supplied by the Nazi regime and thereby also became involved in the Holocaust, assigning Jewish prisoners from concentration camps to work in many of its factories. Even when the military suggested that security reasons dictated that work should be performed by free German workers, Alfried insisted on using slaves.
He officially replaced his father as head of the family firm under the Lex Krupp ("Krupp Law"), proclaimed by Adolf Hitler on 12 November 1943, which set aside the usual laws of inheritance and preserved the Krupp firm as a family business. Under this law, Alfried formally added the Krupp name to his own. He was also appointed Reichsminister für Rüstung und Kriegsproduktion ("Minister for Armament and War Production"). The transfer of ownership was a gesture of gratitude by Hitler and was to be one of only a few major Nazi laws that survived the fall of the regime.
Krupp worked closely with the SS, which controlled the concentration camps from which slave labor was obtained. In a letter dated 7 September 1943, he wrote: "As regards the cooperation of our technical office in Breslau, I can only say that between that office and Auschwitz the closest understanding exists and is guaranteed for the future."
According to one of his own employees, even when it was clear that the war was lost: "Krupp considered it a duty to make 520 Jewish girls, some of them little more than children, work under the most brutal conditions in the heart of the concern, in Essen."
After the war, the Allied Military Government investigated Krupp's employment of slave laborers. He was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment and the forfeiture of all property. However, after three years, New York banker John J. McCloy, serving as American High Commissioner for Germany arranged for Krupp to be pardoned and the forfeiture of property was reversed.
Prior to Krupp's death from lung cancer, his assistant, Berthold Beitz worked to transfer control of the company to a Stiftung ("foundation"), to be monitored by three members of a supervisory board. Most notably was Hermann Josef Abs, of the former Deutsch-Asiatische Bank A.G. and Deutsche Bank AG. In this agreement, Krupp's son and heir, Arndt, relinquished any claim over his father's businesses, and was to be paid a modest cash amount, in yearly installments, until his own death.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (September 2011)|
- "Alfried (Felix Alwyn) Krupp (von Bohlen Und Halbach) Biography (1906–67)". Crystal Reference Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
- "Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach". britannica. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
- Alfred Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach at databaseOlympics
- Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach at theEncyclopædia Britannica
- William Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, p. 10.
- Manchester, pp. 5-6
- Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, pp. 10-11.
- Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, p. 10"