|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (June 2013)|
antimony oxide chloride
|Molar mass||173.21 g/mol|
|Melting point||280 °C (536 °F; 553 K)|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Algarot is a pale white emetic powder formerly used in alchemy that consists of a compound of trichloride and trioxide of antimony. It was used as an emetic because it purges violently both through regurgitation and diarrhea.
In his Currus Triumphalis Antimonii (The triumphal chariot of antimony) Basil Valentine describes the reaction of butter of antimony (antimony trichloride) with water. Johann Rudolf Glauber gives a relatively exact chemical interpretation of the reaction in 1659.
Vittorio Algarotto introduced the substance into medicine. He called it pulvis angelicus. In older literature the substance was also frequently called pulvis algarotis or Powder of Algaroth.
The exact composition was unknown for a very long time. The suggestion of SbOCl being a mixture antimony trichloride and antimony oxide or pure SbOCl were raised. Today the hydrolysis of antimony trichloride is understood; first the SbOCl oxychloride is formed which later forms Sb4O5Cl2.
Algarot is also known as mercurius vitæ ("mercury of life"), emetic powder, powder of algaroth, algarel, antimonious oxychloride, or antimony hypochlorite.
Historically, algarot was prepared of butter of antimony (antimony trichloride), which was no more than the regulus (purified metal) of that mineral, dissolved in acids, and separated again by means of several lotions with lukewarm water, which absorbed those acids. By collecting all the lotions and evaporating two third parts, what remained was a very acid liquor, called "Spirit of Philosophical Vitriol".
At present, algarot is synthesised by exposing antimony trichloride to water:
- SbCl3 + H2O → SbOCl + 2 HCl
- Nurgaliev, B. Z.; Popovkin, B. A.; Novoselova, A. V. (1981). "Physicochemical analysis of antimony trioxide–antimony trichloride, antimony trioxide–antimony tribromide systems". Zhurnal Neorganicheskoi Khimii 26 (4): 1043–1047.
- Chambers, Ephraim (1728). "Cyclopaedia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences". Retrieved 25 May 2013. Check date values in:
- José Rodríguez has published a complete study devoted to the commercial network of chemical medicines developed by Vittorio Algarotti (1553-1604): The First Commercial Network of a Chymical Medicine:
- Van Bemmelen, J. M.; Meerburg, P. A.; Noodt, U. Huber (1902). "Das System (SbCl3-HCl-H2O)". Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 33: 272. doi:10.1002/zaac.19030330137.
- Lémery, Nicolas (1707). Traité de l'antimoine.
- Soukup, Rudolf Werner (1999). "Chemiehistorische Experimente: Erze als Ausgangsprodukte für die Herstellung von Arzneimitteln". Chemkon 6 (4): 171. doi:10.1002/ckon.19990060403.
- Särnstrand, C. (1978). "The crystal structure of antimony(III) chloride oxide Sb4O5Cl2". Acta Crystallographica Section B Structural Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry 34 (8): 2402. doi:10.1107/S056774087800833X.
- Hentz, F. C.; Long, G. G. (1975). "Synthesis, properties, and hydrolysis of antimony trichloride". Journal of Chemical Education 52 (3): 189. doi:10.1021/ed052p189.
- Edstrand, Maja; Brodersen, Rolf; Sillén, Lars Gunnar; Linnasalmi, Annikki; Laukkanen, Pentti (1947). "On the Crystal Structure of the Antimony Oxychloride Sb4O5Cl2 and Isomorphous Oxybromide". Acta Chemica Scandinavica 1: 178. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.01-0178.
- Schaeffer, L. (1869). "VI. Ueber krystallisirtes Algarothpulver und Antimonoxychlorür". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 152 (3): 314. doi:10.1002/jlac.18691520307.
- "Hydrolysis of Antimony(III)-Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 25°C" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Peligot, M.E. (1847). "On the preparation and composition of the salts of antimony". Philosophical Magazine 3 31 (207): 230. doi:10.1080/14786444708645830.
- Historia di Verona. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Über Antimon(V)-oxidchloride". doi:10.1002/zaac.19613120503. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
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