Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur
|Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur|
|Leader of Association of Combatant Clerics|
15 August 2010
|Preceded by||Mousavi Khoeiniha|
|Minister of the Interior of Iran|
19 August 1985 – 3 August 1989
|Prime Minister||Mir-Hossein Mousavi|
|Succeeded by||Abdollah Nouri|
|Born||1947 (age 66–67)
|Political party||Association of Combatant Clerics|
Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur or Mohtashami (Persian: علیاکبر محتشمی) (born 1947) is a Shia cleric who was active in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and later became interior minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He is "seen as a founder of the Hezbollah movement in Lebanon" and one of the "radical ... elements, advocating the export of the revolution," in the Iranian clerical hierarchy.
In an assassination attempt targeting Mohtashami, he lost his right hand when he was opening a book loaded with explosives.
Mohtashemi studied in the holy city of Najaf Iraq, where he spent considerable time with his mentor the Ayatollah Khomeini. He also accompanied Khomeini in the exile period in both Iraq and France. He cofounded an armed group in the 1970s with Mohammad Montazeri, son of Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri, in Lebanon and Syria, aiming at assisting liberation movements in Muslim countries.
Following the revolution he served as Iran's ambassador to Syria from 1982 to 1986. He later became Iran's minister of interior. While ambassador to Syria, he is thought to have played a "pivotal role" in the creation of the Lebanese radical Shia organization Hezbollah, working "within the framework of the Department for Islamic Liberation Movements run by the Iranian Pasdaran." Mohtashemi "actively supervised" Hezbollah's creation, merging into it existing radical Shi'ite movements: the Lebanese al-Dawa; the Association of Muslim Students; Al Amal al Islamiyya. In 1986 his "close supervision" of Hezbollah was cut short when the Office of Islamic Liberation was reassigned to Iran's ministry of foreign affairs. He is also described as making "liberal" use of the diplomatic pouch as Ambassador, bringing in "crates" of material from Iran.
In 1989 the new Iranian president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ousted Mohtashami from the Lebanon desk of the Iranian ministry of foreign affairs, replacing him with Rafsanjani's brother Mahmud Hashemi. This was seen as an indication of Iran's downgrading of its support for Hezbollah and for a revolutionary foreign policy in general.
More controversially, Mohtashami is thought
to have played an active role, with the Pasdaran and Syrian military intelligence, in the supervision of Hezbollah's suicide bomb attacks against the American embassy in Beirut in April 1983, the American and French contingents of the MNF in October 1983 and the American embassy annex in September 1984.
and to have been instrumental in the killing of Lt. Col. William R. Higgins, the American Chief of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization's (UNTSO) observer group in Lebanon who was taken hostage on 17 February 1988 by Lebanese pro-Iranian Shia radicals. The killing of Higgins is said to have come "from orders issued by Iranian radicals, most notably Mohtashemi," in an effort to prevent "improvement in the U.S.-Iranian relationship." 
While Mohtashemi was a strong opponent of Western influence in the Muslim world and of the existence of the state of Israel, he was also a supporter and advisor of reformist Iranian president Mohammad Khatami who was famous for championing of free expression and civil rights. Mohtashemi was in the Western news again in 2000, not as a hardline radical but for refusing to appear in court in Iran after his pro-reform newspaper, Bayan, was banned.
In 1984, after the Beirut bombings, Mohtashami received a parcel containing a book on Shia holy places when he was serving as Iranian ambassador to Damascus. As he opened the package it detonated, blowing off his hand and severely wounding him. Mohtashami was medevaced to Europe and survived the blast to continue his work. The identity of the perpetrators of the attack is unknown.
- Iran: Early Race For Clerical Assembly Gets Bitter Radio Liberty
- Iranian publisher defies court BBC, 26 June 2000
- Barsky, Yehudit (May 2003). "Hizballah" (Terrorism Briefing). The American Jewish Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997) pp. 126, 103
- Ali Akbar Mohtashemi explaing story of assassination attempt and how he lost his hand. Iran Negah
- Sadr, Shahryar (8 July 2010). "How Hezbollah Founder Fell Foul of Iranian Regime". IRN (43). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Samii, Abbas William (Winter 2008). "A Stable Structure on Shifting Sands: Assessing the Hizbullah-Iran-Syria Relationship". Middle East Journal 62 (1). doi:10.37126.96.36.199 Check
|doi=value (help). Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? Oxford University Press,(1992) pp. 146-151
- Independent, 23 October 1991
- Roger Faligot and Remi Kauffer, Les Maitres Espions, (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1994) pp. 412-3
- Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997) pp. 89-90
- Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p. 88
- sometime after August 17
- Nassif Hitti, `Lebanon in Iran's Foreign Policy: Opportunities and Constraints,` in Hosshang Amirahmadi and Nader Entessar Iran and the Modern World, Macmillan, (1993), p. 188
- Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997) p. 104
- Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 106
- Foreign Report, 20 June 1985
- New York Times, 2 November 1983; and 5 October 1984
- Ranstorp, Hizb'allah, (1997), p. 146
- Iran opens "largest" conference on Palestinian intifada
- Reformist newspaper closed in Iran BBC News 25 June 2000
- Javedanfar, Meir (24 November 2009). "Hezbollah's Man in Iran". PBS. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p. 89
- Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis, New York, St. Martins Press, 1997
- Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, Simon and Schuster, 2001
- TEHRAN, WASHINGTON, AND TERROR: NO AGREEMENT TO DIFFER
- Analysis: Iran Sends Terror-Group Supporters To Arafat's Funeral Procession 12 November 2004
- How Hezbollah Founder Fell Foul of Iranian Regime 8 July 2010
Ali Akbar Nategh Nori
|Interior minister of Iran
|Party political offices|
Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha
|Leader of Association of Combatant Clerics