Ali Gomaa

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Ali Gomaa
على جمعة
Ali Gomaa.JPG
Former Grand Mufti of Egypt
In office
28 September 2003 – 11 February 2013
President Hosni Mubarak
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)
Mohamed Morsi
Preceded by Ahmed el-Tayeb
Succeeded by Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam
Personal details
Born (1952-03-03) 3 March 1952 (age 62)
Beni Suef, Egypt
Nationality Egyptian
Alma mater Al-Azhar University (B.A.) (M.A.) (P.H.D.)
Ain Shams University (B.Com.)
University of Liverpool (H.D.)
Occupation Islamic scholar
Religion Sunni Islam (Ash'ari)[1][2] Shafi'i[3]
Website www.draligomaa.org

Ali Gomaa[4] (Arabic: على جمعة‎, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈʕæli ˈɡomʕæ]) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar, jurist, and public figure. He specializes in Islamic Legal Theory. He follows the Shafi`i school of Islamic jurisprudence[5] and the Ash'ari school of tenets of faith.[6][7]

He served as the eighteenth Grand Mufti of Egypt (2003-2013) through Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah succeeding Ahmed el-Tayeb. He is one of the internationally most respected Islamic jurists according to a 2008 U.S. News & World Report report[8] and The National[9] and "a highly promoted champion of moderate Islam," gender equality, and an "object of hatred among Islamists" according to The New Yorker.[10]

He recently became noteworthy for his active and enthusiastic public support for the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, and his repeated justification of the killing of civilian protestors by the Egyptian security forces, including following the mass killings during the August 2013 Rabaa massacre. He is also one of the signatories to a letter condemning ISIS as unIslamic due to their practice of indiscriminate and brutal mass killing.

He was succeeded as Grand Mufti by Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam in February 2013.

Background[edit]

Ali Gomaa was born in the Upper Egyptian province of Beni Suef on 3 March 1952 CE (7 Jumadah al-Akhirah 1371 AH). He is married and has three adult children.[11] In appearance he has been described as "tall and regal, with a round face and a trim beard."[10]

Education[edit]

Gomaa graduated from high school in 1969, at which point he enrolled at Ain Shams University in Egypt’s capital, Cairo. Having already begun to memorize the Quran, he delved deeper into his studies of Islam, studying Hadith and Shafi'i jurisprudence in his free time while at university. After completing a B.A. in Commerce at Ain Shams in 1973, Gomaa enrolled in Cairo’s al-Azhar University, the oldest active Islamic institution of higher learning in the world. He received a second B.A. from al-Azhar, then an M.A., and finally a Ph.D with highest honors in Juristic Methodology (usul al-fiqh) in 1988.[12] Since he had not gone through the al-Azhar High School curriculum, he took it upon himself in his first year at the college to study and memorize all of the basic texts that many of the other students had already covered.

Teaching[edit]

Gomaa taught in the faculty of Islamic and Arabic Studies at al-Azhar University from the time he received his M.A. until he was appointed Grand Mufti, first as an assistant professor, and finally as a full professor.[13] In addition to being a teacher of Aqida, Tafsir, Hadith, legal theory and Islamic history[14], Gomaa is also a highly respected Sufi master.[15][16][17]

Classes Outside of the University[edit]

In addition to the courses he taught at the University, Gomaa also revived the tradition of open classes held in a mosque where he taught a circle of students six days a week from after sunrise until noon. Gomaa established these lessons in 1998 [18] with the aim of protecting the Islamic intellectual tradition from being lost or misinterpreted, "I want people to continue in the tradition of knowledge reading the classical texts the way they were written, not the way people want to understand them." [19] In addition to the lessons in al-Azhar, Gomaa also began giving the Friday sermon (khutbah) in Cairo’s Sultan Hassan Mosque in 1998 after which he would give a short lesson in Islamic jurisprudence for the general public followed by a question-and-answer session. In addition Gomaa speaks fluent English, and was a former chairman of Al-Azhar University's Islamic Jurisprudence Department.

Work with Jihadi prisoners[edit]

Gomaa has told American journalist Lawrence Wright that he worked with Islamic Group prisoners who later embraced the "Nonviolence Initiative" and denounced violence. "I began going into the prisons in the 1990s. ... We had debates and dialogues with the prisoners, which continued for more than three years. Such debates became the nucleus for the revisionist thinking."[10]

Tenure as Grand Mufti[edit]

Ali Gomaa was appointed Grand Mufti in late September 2003.[20] by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, replacing former Mufti Mohamed Ahmed El-Tayeb. El-Tayeb was appointed Al-Azhar University president, taking over from Ahmed Omar Hashem.[21]

His office, the Dar al Ifta (literally, the house of fatwas), a government agency charged with issuing religious legal opinions on any question to Muslims who ask for them, issues some 5,000 fatwas a week, including both the official ones that he himself crafts on important issues and the more routine ones handled via phone and Internet by a dozen or so subordinate muftis.[22]

Media Appearances[edit]

Since being appointed as Grand Mufti, Gomaa has had numerous media appearances. His regular television appearances include: al-Bayt Baytak on Tuesday nights on both Egyptian terrestrial and satellite channel two when he discusses current events and answers the questions of viewers who call in. Yas’alunaka, on Fridays on the Risalah satellite channel on which he gives a simplified explanation of Islamic jurisprudence, and a commentary on the Koran that appears daily on local Egyptian channel one.

In addition to his television appearances, Gomaa has a weekly column in the Egyptian daily newspaper al-Ahram. His articles have covered a wide range of topics from explanations of the basis of Islamic law and calling for calm in the face of the Danish cartoon crisis, to refuting extremism and denouncing The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as a forgery. He is one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding.

Views on selling pork and alcohol in the West and 'Non muslim countries'[edit]

In a fatwa issued by Dar-al-ifta,[23] approved and signed by Ali Gom’a, the Egyptian Mufti stated that selling pork and alcohol is permitted in the West because of the following points:

Quote "it is allowed taking the opinion of the scholars from the Hanafi madhhab who allow to deal with wrong contracts in non-muslim countries "

Another justification was that the Prophet let his uncle Al-‘Abbas Ibn ‘Abdil-Muttalib take usury in Mecca — when it was a non-muslim city- and he did not prohibit him except in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage.

In all during the fatwa – which was a reply to a question from a Muslim in Europe asking about whether it would be allowed for him to work in stores that sell alcohol and pork along with other products because he cannot find another job – Ali mentioned the terms "dar-al-harb" (House of war) and "ahl al-harb" (people of war) several times, and gave a response that not only dealt with what the questioner had asked, but also considered further points such as the taking of interest and gambling.

Other Fatwas of Significance[edit]

Since taking office Gomaa has issued a number of fatwas and statements that have made an impact in the media. He has issued a fatwa asserting that men and women enjoy equal political rights in Islam, including the right to become president of a modern state.[24]

He recently stated on national television that it is permissible in Islam for a woman to have hymen restoration surgery for any reason since Islam promotes protecting one’s privacy and reputation and does not require a woman to provide proof of her virginity.[25]

In November 2006, prof Gomaa ruled that female circumcision (also referred to as female genital mutilation or FGM) should not be applied; this ruling is in accordance with Egyptian law, that also forbids female circumcision. This ruling came about after a conference instigated by research and a documentary on FGM in Somalia by the German action group Target. This fatwa is now also used in Western Europe to combat FGM.[26] On 24 June 2007, after an 11-year-old died under the knife undergoing circumcision, he decreed that female circumcision was not just "un-Islamic" but forbidden.[27]

He has also stated that Islam does not call for and has never known a theocratic state and that there is no contradiction between Islam and liberal democracy saying, "I consider myself a liberal and a Muslim, but this does not mean I am a secularist. The Egyptian [historical] experience has combined liberalism and Islam in the best of ways." [28]

He is a signatory of the Amman Message, which gives a broad foundation for defining Muslim orthodoxy, unequivocally states that nobody has the right to excommunicate a Muslim, and restricts the issuing of fatwas to those with the scholarly qualifications to do so.[29]

In 2007 he "unequivocally told the Washington Post that the death penalty for apostasy simply no longer applies."[30] Ramadan Al Sherbini of Gulf News later reported Gomaa clarifying that Muslims are not free to change their faith; "What I actually said is that Islam prohibits a Muslim from changing his religion and that apostasy is a crime, which must be punished." [31]

The Mufti still rejects the death penalty though. In 2009, posted on his website that he does not believe that apostasy is punishable by death.

In fact, it was only two years ago that Sheikh Ali Gomaa made clear statements to the effect that apostasy is not punishable by death in Islam, a position that he holds to this day.

[32]

He is the Editor of the Encyclopaedia of Hadith, a sub-project of the greater Sunnah Project of the Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation, which aims at documenting and publishing all works related to Prophetic narrations or Hadith.

Gomaa has publicly asserted that the anti-Semitic The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a forgery and made an official court complaint concerning a publisher who falsely put his name on an introduction to its Arabic translation.[33]

Views on extremism[edit]

Gomaa has taken a very clear stance against extremist interpretations of Islam. "He has become the most explicitly anti-extremist cleric in mainstream Sunni Islam." [34] He says that the use of violence to spread Islam is prohibited and extremists have not been educated in genuine centers of Islamic learning, "Terrorists are criminals, not Muslim activists." [35] and indicates about religion in general including Islam: "Terrorism cannot be born of religion. Terrorism is the product of corrupt minds, hardened hearts, and arrogant egos, and corruption, destruction, and arrogance are unknown to the heart attached to the divine."[36]

Gomaa believes the best antidote to Islamic extremism is "traditional conception of sharia law — along with knowledge of Islamic jurisprudence"[37]

Conclusion of term as Grand Mufti in 2013[edit]

Despite having a one year extension of his term because of the political situation in post-revolutionary Egypt, Gomaa's term was allowed to expire.

A committee decided Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam to be the Mufti's successor.[38]

The Egyptian Revolution of 2011[edit]

Dr. Ali Gomaa made several public statements in relation to the massive uprising that began on 25 January 2011 and led to the stepping down of former Egyptian president Muhammad Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011. His general position was one of caution addressing the potential for mass bloodshed and chaos.[39] He was clear that public protest to address grievances is a fundamental human right,[40] but cautioned that mass demonstrations that lead to a disruption of day-to-day life could be considered impermissible (haram) from an Islamic legal point of view.[41] On Thursday 3 February 2011, Dr. Gomaa went on national TV to answer "hundreds of calls he received that day" with concerns about attending Friday prayer services.[42] He issued a fatwa allowing people who feared physical harm due to calls of further mass protests to pray at home and not attend Friday prayer services.

Mursi's Year[edit]

In March 2011, Dr. Gomaa’s 60th birthday and the official retirement age of Egyptian government employees, the SCAF issued him a one year extension to help with the continuity of government. In June of the same year Muhammad Mursi was elected Egypt’s new president.[43][44][45][46][47] On 20 July 2012 Dr. Gomaa held a national press conference to announce the start of the holy month of Ramadan and announced the month in the name of Egypt’s new president.[48] In March 2013, Dr. Gomaa retired from his position of Grand Mufti of Egypt and Dr. Shawqi Allam became Egypt’s new Grand Mufti.

Views on future Of Islam in Egyptian democracy[edit]

In an op-ed in the New York Times, the Mufti supported the passage of the 2011 Constitutional referendum, calling it a "milestone" for Egyptian democracy.[49]

He also stated that since Egypt is a very religious society, "it is inevitable that Islam will have a place in our democratic political order". However, he reassured that Muslims believe that "Islamic law guarantees freedom of conscience and expression (within the bounds of common decency) and equal rights for women."[49]

He also stated that there was no contradiction between Articles 2 and 7 of the constitution, the former saying that Islam was the official religion of the state and that legislation was based on principles of Islamic jurisprudence, and the latter guaranteeing full citizenship before the law to members of Egyptian society regardless of religion, race or creed.[49]

He also stated that Islamists would stay within mainstream, and that radicalism would "not only run contrary to the law, but will also guarantee their political marginalization".[49]

'Ali Gomaa's is not necessarily committed to democracy. Following the Egyptian Coup, he expressed hostility towards Western democracy in a television interview stating that it was contrary to Islamic law. Specifically, he argued that the Muslim Brothers should be following Islamic law and not Western democracy.[50]

Support for the Egyptian Coup of 2013[edit]

'Ali Gomaa came out strongly in support of the coup in Egypt 2013, arguing that it was entirely legitimate for the military to oust a democratic leader. According to unverified military sources, millions of Egyptians took to the streets on 30 June 2013 to protest policies and constitutional decrees of President Mursi. As a result, Mursi was placed under arrest by Egypt’s Defense Minister Abdul Fattah al-Sisi who also dissolved the constitution and placed the head of Egypt’s Supreme Court Justice Adly Mansur as the interim president.[51][52] Gomaa argued that the arrest of Mursi was legitimate from an Islamic legal perspective since the "people of the state" and those who bind and loosen (ahl al-hall wa’l ‘aqd), manifested in the Defense Minister, the Republican Guard, Sheikh al-Azhar, Ahmad al-Tayyib, and the Coptic Pope Tawadros II, were the ones who moved against Mursi to prevent further national chaos.[53][54] Gomaa also drew comparisons from recent history in which an incapacitated ruler was removed from power due to national security concerns.[55]

Justifying the use of lethal force against peaceful protestors[edit]

Mursi supporters, largely led by the Muslim Brotherhood, staged sit-ins in various squares around Cairo, most notably the Raba‘a Square in Nasr City. At the same time, there were major security lapses in the Sinai region that required military and police intervention. Legal action was taken to allow the Ministry of the Interior to break up the Raba‘a protests,[56] and this eventually took place on 14 August 2013. There was significant loss of life throughout the Raba‘a breakup from both police forces and protestors. On 19 August 2013, Gomaa addressed Defense Minister Sisi and other members of the armed forces in a live televised event in which he supported not only the breakup of the protests and military intervention in Sinai, but also argued for the legitimate use of lethal force.[57] He based his position on the fact that the protestors in Raba‘a were heavily armed and that, according to eyewitnesses, it was the protestors that fired on the police first, not the other way around.[58] Gomaa argued that the use of force from the side of the protestors and the significant loss of life from police forces at the beginning of the conflict necessitated the use of force to quell armed insurrection, and that these facts alone meant that Raba‘a was no longer a legitimate peaceful protest and the argument for the right to freedom of assembly ceased to have legitimacy.[58]

Justifying the crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood[edit]

Gomaa’s severe criticism the Muslim Brotherhood extended beyond the Raba‘a episode. In August 2013, Gomaa has likened the Brotherhood to the early khawarij who sought to rise in rebellion against the Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib in the 7th century. In at least one instance he described the Muslim Brothers as "dogs of the hellfire" (kilab al-nar), and that those who killed them were blessed by God. [59][60] On 31 October 2013, Gomaa held a national press conference to announce the launch of a fund to help rebuild Christian churches in Egypt that were destroyed by Muslim extremists.[61]

Charges of crimes against humanity against Gomaa[edit]

As a result of this specific incident and generally due to his public attacks on the Muslim Brotherhood, the Freedom and Justice Party engaged the London based law firm ITN to bring charges of crimes against humanity against Gomaa and other members of the Egyptian state establishment.[62] Gomaa’s solicitors put ITN on notice that such actions were a PR stunt of the Muslim Brotherhood and a direct response to his efforts to help the Egyptian Christian community.

Controversy[edit]

According to American journalist Jay Tolson, Ali Gomaa has been a victim of "smear tactics" by hardline blogger critics of Islam and the Muslim world, the effect of which has been "cumulative and insidious." He quotes Robert Spencer as referring to `wife-beating'[63][64] statue-hating[65] Mufti Ali Gomaa.`[8]

Sculpture[edit]

On 18 April 2006, an article entitled "Egypt's grand mufti issues fatwa: no sculpture" appeared in the csmonitor.com

Artists and intellectuals here say the edict, whose ban on producing and displaying sculptures overturns a century-old fatwa, runs counter to Islam. They also worry that extremists may use the ruling as a pretense for destroying Egypt's ancient relics, which form a pillar of the country's multibillion-dollar tourist industry.[65]

Jay Tolson defended Ali Gomaa, saying

while Gomaa did say that it was un-Islamic for Muslims to own statues or to display them in their homes, he made it very clear that the destruction of antiquities and other statues in the public sphere was unacceptable and indeed criminal. He is also on record deploring the Taliban's destruction of the great Buddhist statuary in Afghanistan.[8]

Original writings[edit]

His published works include in alphabetical order:

  1. ‘Alaqah Usul al-Fiqh bil al-Falsafah
  2. Aliyat al-Ijtihad
  3. Athr Dhihab al-Mahal fi al-Hukm
  4. al-Bayan
  5. al-Hukm al-Shar’i
  6. al-Ijma’ ‘ind al-Usuliyyin
  7. al-Imam al-Shafi’i wa Madrasatuhu al-Fiqhiyyah
  8. al-Imam al-Bukhari
  9. al-Kalim al-Tayyib vol. 1
  10. al-Kalim al-Tayyib vol. 2
  11. Mabahith al-Amr ‘ind al-Usuliyyin
  12. al-Madkhal ila Darasah al-Madhahib al-Fiqhiyyah
  13. al-Mar’ah fi al-Hadarah al-Islamiyyah
  14. al-Mustalah al-Usuli wa al-Tatbiq ‘ala Tarif al-Qiyas
  15. al-Nadhariyyat al-Usuliyyah wa Madkhal li Darasah ‘Ilm al-Usul
  16. al-Naskh ‘ind al-Usuliyyin
  17. Qadiyah Tajdid Usul al-Fiqh
  18. al-Qiyas ‘ind al-Usuliyyin
  19. al-Ru’yah wa Hujiyyatiha al-Usuliyyah
  20. Simat al-Asr
  21. Taqyid al-Mubah
  22. al-Tariq ila al-Turath al-Islami

Teachers[edit]

His sheikhs and teachers include in alphabetical order:

  1. ‘Abd al-Hafidh al-Tijani
  2. ‘Abd al-Hakim ‘Abd al-Latif
  3. ‘Abd al-Hamid Mayhub
  4. Ahmad Jabir al-Yamani
  5. ‘Abd al-Jalil al-Qaranshawi
  6. Ahmad Hammadah al-Shafi’i
  7. Ahmad Mursi
  8. ‘Ali Ahmad Mar’i
  9. Hasan Ahmad Mar’i
  10. al-Husayni Yusuf al-Shaykh
  11. Ibrahim Abu al-Khashab
  12. ‘Iwad Allah al-Hijazi
  13. ‘Iwad al-Zabidi
  14. Ismail Sadiq al-’Adwi
  15. Ismail al-Zayn al-Yamani
  16. Jad al-Haqq ‘Ali Jad al-Haqq
  17. Jad al-Rabb Ramadan
  18. Muhammad Abu Nur Zuhayr
  19. Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki
  20. Muhammad Ismail al-Hamadani
  21. Muhammad Mahmud Farghali
  22. Muhammad Shams al-Din al-Mantiqi
  23. Muhammad Zaki Ibrahin
  24. Sha’ban Muhammad Ismail
  25. Said ‘Abd Allah al-Lajhi
  26. al-Sayiid Salih ‘Iwad
  27. Salih al-Ja’fari
  28. Yasin al-Fidani

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maged, Amani (3 November 2011). "Salafis vs Sufis". Al-Ahram Weekly Onine. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  2. ^ el-Beheri, Ahmed (9 May 2010). "Azhar sheikh warns West against double standards". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Asthana, N. C.; Nirmal, Anjali (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Pointer Publishers. p. 117. ISBN 817132598X. 
  4. ^ Ethar El-Katatney The People's Mufti Egypt Today October 2007.
  5. ^ Asthana, N. C.; Nirmal, Anjali (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Pointer Publishers. p. 117. ISBN 817132598X. 
  6. ^ Maged, Amani (3 November 2011). "Salafis vs Sufis". Al-Ahram Weekly Onine. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  7. ^ el-Beheri, Ahmed (9 May 2010). "Azhar sheikh warns West against double standards". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c "Finding the Voices of Moderate Islam", Jay Tolson, USNEWS, 2 April 2008
  9. ^ al-Hashemi, Bushra Alkaff; Rym Ghaza (February 2012). "Grand Mufti calls for dialogue about the internet". The National. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism. by Lawrence Wright. newyorker.com, 2 June 2008
  11. ^ al-Kalim al-Tayyib vol. 2, p. 417
  12. ^ Grewal, Zareena (2010). Islam Is a Foreign Country: American Muslims and the Global Crisis of Authority. New York University Press. p. 191. ISBN 1479800902. 
  13. ^ Islamica Magazine, Issue # 12, Spring 2005
  14. ^ Marranci, Gabriele (2013). Studying Islam in Practice. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 1317914244. 
  15. ^ Egypt Independent: "Opposing currents: Internal rifts may risk the credibility of Egypt’s religious institutions" by Mai Shams El-Din 25 February 2013
  16. ^ Carnegie Endowment: "Salafis and Sufis in Egypt" by Jonathan Brown December 2011 | p 12 | "...the current Grand Mufti of Egypt and senior al-Azhar scholar Ali Gomaa is also a highly respected Sufi master.
  17. ^ Ali Gomaa website: Fatwa on Sufism retrieved 29 June 2013
  18. ^ al-Ahram 1 Oct 2005
  19. ^ Islamica Magazine, Issue #12, Spring 2005
  20. ^ EGYPT HEADLINES
  21. ^ Al-Ahram, New Mufti
  22. ^ Egypt's Grand Mufti Counters the Tide of Islamic Extremism, By Jay Tolson, 6 March 2008
  23. ^ (fatwa number 4189)
  24. ^ Mufti not against women presidents after all? at The Arabist
  25. ^ Broadsheet: Women's Articles, Women's Stories, Women's Blog - Salon.com
  26. ^ 24 November 2006 Female Circumcision in Islam
  27. ^ The Economist: Laying Down Religious Law
  28. ^ Nahdah Masr, 3 Feb. 2007
  29. ^ The Official Website of The Amman Message - The Amman Message
  30. ^ When Muslims become Christians
  31. ^ "Top cleric denies 'freedom to choose religion' comment," GulfNews, 25 July 2007
  32. ^ False Accusations Regarding the Grand Mufti and Sayyid al-Qimni
  33. ^ al-Ahram, 1 Jan. 2007
  34. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, July/August 2005
  35. ^ Down For Maintenance
  36. ^ "Terrorism has no religion". Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  37. ^ Egypt's Grand Mufti Counters the Tide of Islamic Extremism, By Jay Tolson, 6 March 2008
  38. ^ Abdel-Baky, Mohamed (13 February 2013). "Moderate mufti". Al Ahram. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  39. ^ Jazeera, Al. "‫مفتي مصر". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  40. ^ Jazeera, Al (2011-02-08). "‫مفتى الجمهورية مصر محسودة وعلى ناصية". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  41. ^ Ibid
  42. ^ Jazeera, Al. "‫فتوى د.علي جمعة بخصوص تظاهرات يوم الجمعة". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  43. ^ "For Islamists in Egypt, Morsi Victory Is a Symbolic Win". The New York Times. 24 June 2012. 
  44. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood's Morsi urges 'unity' in first speech as Egypt's president-elect". CNN News. 24 June 2012. 
  45. ^ "Egypt's new president: U.S.-educated Islamist". CNN News. 24 June 2012. 
  46. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood's Mursi declared Egypt president". BBC News. 24 June 2012. 
  47. ^ "Mohammed Morsi, New Egyptian President, Says He Wants Unity, Peace". 24 June 2012. 
  48. ^ AlMasry AlYoum (2012-07-19). "‫«الإفتاء»: الجمعة أول أيام رمضان". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  49. ^ a b c d Gomaa, Ali (1 April 2011). "In Egypt’s Democracy, Room for Islam". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  50. ^ "#Momken - ممكن - 23-8-2013 - الحوار الكامل للشيخ علي جمعه مع خيري رمضان". Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  51. ^ Saleh, Yasmine. "Special Report: Mursi's downfall". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  52. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/06/world/middleeast/egypt.html?pagewanted=all
  53. ^ CBC Egypt. "#Momken - ممكن - 23-8-2013 - الحوار الكامل للشيخ علي جمعه مع خيري رمضان#". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  54. ^ alraad22. "‫خطاب على جمعه للعسكر يفتي لهم بقتل الثوار". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  55. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DcAoD8FttnU#t=5442.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ "أخبارك.نت - تغطية: دعوى قضائية تطالب بإلزام الجيش والشرطة فض اعتصام رابعة". Akhbarak.net. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  57. ^ "‫الفيديو السرى لفتوى على جمعه بوجوب قتل الاخوان الذى تم عرضه للظباط والجنود داخل معسكرات الجيش 2". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  58. ^ a b CBC Egypt. "#Momken - ممكن - 23-8-2013 - الحوار الكامل للشيخ علي جمعه مع خيري رمضان#". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  59. ^ "الفيديو السرى لفتوى على جمعه بوجوب قتل الاخوان الذى تم عرضه للظباط والجنود داخل معسكرات الجيش". Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  60. ^ CBC Egypt. "#Momken - ممكن - 23-8-2013 - الحوار الكامل للشيخ علي جمعه مع خيري رمضان#". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  61. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZmDQDRCleM.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  62. ^ https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/news/europe/8326-international-legal-team-to-present-initial-findings-of-crimes-against-humanity-perpetrated-by-egyptian-regime-following-the-coup-in-july.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  63. ^ Middle East Media Research Institute: "Mufti of Egypt Sheik Ali Gum'a: Wife-Beating Is Permitted by Islam in Muslim Countries, but Is Forbidden in the West" Clip No. 1154, 26 May 2006 | "But when Allah permitted wife-beating, He permitted it to the other side of culture, which considers it as one of the means to preserve the family, and as one of the means to preserve stability"
  64. ^ "Wife-Beating Is Permitted by Islam in Muslim Countries, but Is Forbidden in the West". Video.google.com. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  65. ^ a b Egypt's grand mufti issues fatwa: no sculpture

External links[edit]

Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed el-Tayeb
Grand Mufti of Egypt
2003-2013
Succeeded by
Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam