Ali Hassan Mwinyi

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Ali Hassan Mwinyi
Ali Hassan Mwinyi 2.jpg
2nd President of Tanzania
In office
5 November 1985 – 23 November 1995
Prime Minister Joseph Warioba (1985–90)
John Malecela (1990–94)
Cleopa Msuya (1994–95)
Preceded by Julius Nyerere
Succeeded by Benjamin Mkapa
3rd President of Zanzibar
In office
30 January 1984 – 24 October 1985
Preceded by Aboud Jumbe
Succeeded by Idris Abdul Wakil
Personal details
Born (1925-05-08) 8 May 1925 (age 89)
Nationality Tanzanian
Political party CCM
Spouse(s) Siti Mwinyi
Relations Hussein Mwinyi (son)
Children 12
Religion Islam
Nickname(s) Mzee Ruksa

Ali Hassan Mwinyi (born May 8, 1925, Kivure, Pwani Region, Tanzania) is a Tanzanian politician.[1] He was the second President of the United Republic of Tanzania from 1985 to 1995.[1] Previous posts include Interior Minister and Vice President.[1] He also was chairman of the ruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) from 1990 to 1996.[1]

Presidency[edit]

During Mwinyi's terms Tanzania took the first steps to reverse the socialist policies of Julius Nyerere. [2] He relaxed import restrictions and encouraged private enterprise. It was during his second term that multi-party politics were introduced under pressure from foreign donors. Often referred to as Mzee Rukhsa ("Everything goes"), he pushed for liberalization of morals, beliefs, values (without breaking the law) and the economy. He repeated these beliefs while addressing the country against fanatics who burned down pork butcheries; these were fanatics who claimed that eating pork contradicted their respective beliefs. He insisted that Tanzania was a free country and that individual freedom of beliefs was important. [3] Many argue that during Mwinyi's tenure the country was in transition from the failed socialism orientation that brought its economy to its knees. It is during Mwinyi's administration that Tanzania made some of the crucial decisions towards the liberalization of its economy and paved way for short-term economic growth .

Personal life[edit]

Mwinyi married Siti in 1960 and has six sons and six daughters. In retirement, Mwinyi has stayed out of the limelight and continues to live in Dar es Salaam.[1]

Honours and awards[edit]

Honours[edit]

Order Country Year Ref
Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere (Tanzania) - ribbon bar.png Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere  Tanzania 2011

Honorary degrees[edit]

University Country Degree Year Ref
The Open University of Tanzania  Tanzania Doctor of Letters 2012 [4]
The East African University  Kenya Honorary PhD in Business Management 2013 [5]

Legacy[edit]

Eponyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Europa Publications (2003). The International Who's Who 2004. Routledge. p. 1193. ISBN 1-85743-217-7. 
  2. ^ Brennan, James R.; Burton, Andrew (2007). Dar es Salaam: histories from an emerging African metropolis. African Books Collective. p. 252. ISBN 9987-449-70-0. 
  3. ^ Multi-party elections in Africa. James Currey. 2002. p. 295. ISBN 0-85255-843-0. 
  4. ^ "Why OUT awarded Mzee Ruksa a honorary degree". IPP Media. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Former President Mwinyi conferred with PhD". Daily News (Tanzania). 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.