Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin

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Ali ibn Husayn
علي بن حسين  (Arabic)

4th Imam of Twelver and 3rd Imam of Ismaili Shia
Baghi tomb.jpg
The historical tomb of Al-Baqi' was destroyed in 1925. Imam Ali ibn Husayn is one of four Shia Imams buried here.
Born c. (659-01-04)4 January 659
(5 Sha'aban 38 AH)[1][2]
Kufa, Iraq or Medina,[3] Hejaz[4][5][6]
Died c. 20 October 713(713-10-20) (aged 54)
(12 or 25 Muharram 95 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Cause of death
Death by poisoning
Resting place
Jannatul Baqi, Saudi Arabia
24°28′1″N 39°36′50.21″E / 24.46694°N 39.6139472°E / 24.46694; 39.6139472
Ethnicity Arab (Quraysh)
Title
Term 680 – 712 CE
Predecessor Husayn ibn Ali
Successor Muhammad al-Baqir according to the Twelver Shia, Zayd bin Ali according to the Zaidiyyah Shia.
Religion Islam
Spouse(s) Fatimah bint Hasan
Jayda al-Sindhi
Children Muhammad al-Baqir
Zayd ibn Ali
Parents Husayn ibn Ali
Lady Shāhzanān (aka Shahr Banu)[6][9][13]
Relatives Ali al-Akbar
Ali al-Asghar
Sakinah (Fatima al-Kubra) bint Husayn
Fatima al-Sughra bint al-Husayn
Ruqayyah

Ali ibn Husayn (Arabic: علي بن الحسين‎) known as Zain al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers)and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth of the Shiite Imams, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law. He survived the Battle of Karbala that took place in 61 AH and during his journey from Karbala, he delivered speeches in the towns of Kufa and Damascus, and informed the people of his father's intentions. Imam Sajjad's life and statements were entirely devoted to asceticism and religious teachings mostly in the form of invocations and supplications. His famous supplications are well known as Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.[14][15][16][17]

Birth[edit]

Ali ibn al-Husain was born in Medina, according to most sources in the year 38/658-9.[a] He may have been too small to have remembered his grandfather Ali, who was killed in 40/661, but he was brought up in the presence of his uncle Hasan and his father Husayn, the Prophet’s beloved grandchildren. He was also related- according Shiite tradition - via his mother Shahrbanu, the daughter of Yazdegerd, to the last Sassanian King of Persia.[b][1][15][18] Thus he was said to be ‘Ibn al-Khiyaratayn’, the ‘son of the best two (the Quraysh among the Arabs and the Persians among the non-Arabs)’. According to some accounts, his mother was brought as a captive to Medina during the caliphate of Umar, who wanted to sell her. Ali suggested instead that she be offered her choice of the Muslim men as husband and that her dower be paid from the public treasury. Umar agreed and she chose Ali’s son Husayn.[c][15][19][20]

In Karbala[edit]

In 61/680, Husayn and many of the male members of his family were massacred by the forces of the Umayyad caliph Yazid at the Battle of Karbala. The event was important for one of the Islamic world and precipitated the nascent Shiite movement, a major Islamic denomination. Zain al-Abidin accompanied his father on the march toward Kufa and was present at Karbala, but had fallen ill and was laying in a tent. Once the Umayyad troops had mass murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. It is said that Shemr was about to kill Zain al-Abidin, but Husayn’s sister Zaynab was available to make Umar ibn Sa'ad, the Umayyad commander to let al Abidin alive.[18][20] Zain al-Abidin was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus, and eventually he was allowed to return to Medina.[18][21]

Several accounts are related concerning Zayn al-Abidin's grief over this tragedy. It is said that for twenty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said to him, ‘O son of Allah’s Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?’ He replied, ‘Woe upon you! Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom,[d] though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?’[e][21][22]

The Aftermath of Karbala and His Imamah[edit]

Husayn's death kindled a new movement in Kufa. Many people expressed remorse for their apathy. They wanted to seek atonement by throwing themselves into the struggle to obtain vengeance for his blood. They chose Sulayan b. Surad al Khuza'i as their leader and calling themselves the Tawwabun (penitents). By contrast, the traumatic experience of Karbala caused Husayn's son, zany al-Abidin, to avoid political involvement as far as possible. When the Medinans rebelled against Yazid, Zain al abidin left the city for his estate on its outskirts. Later when Yazid's army defeated the Medinans in the Battle of Harran and sacked and looted the city, Zayn al-Abidin and his family were left unmolested. Moreover there is evidence that he was excepted from giving allegiance to Yazid. By this time, the Tawwabub, who had began their activities secretly in Kufa, had gathered support and were looking for a favorable appourtunity for action. Yazid's death provided the opportunity they sought.[20][23] At this stage Mukhtar al-Thaqafi came to Kufa and professed to represent Zain al-Abidin, who was still in Medina. He soon gained the authority of a popular leader in Kufa and took sudden vengeance on the men who had been responsible for the killing of Husain and his followers at Kerbala. Shemr and Umar ibn Sa'ad were both executed. After gaining the victory over Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad in the battle on the Zab, in which Ubaid Allah was killed, Mukhtar had his head taken to the very place in the palace in Kufa where Ubaid Allah had received the head of Husayn.[20][23] Ibn Zubair, the governor of Medina, however, did not consider that Zain al-Abidin was in any way responsible for these actions of Mukhtar, for while he steadily pursued the latter, until he defeated him and killed him in battle, he left Zayn al-Abidin unmolested in Medina.[20]

It was during this period of disturbed political conditions that the divergent theories of the caliphate received the most attention. The question of the right of succession, as between Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, the half-brother of Husayn, and Zain al-Abidin, the son of Husayn, was a living issue and created factions, some of which came to be regarded as separate sects. Should the next Imam be the surviving son of Ali, Muhammad, who was not a son of Fatimah but of the Hanafite girl? History represents this Muhammad as knowledgeable, ascetic, worshipful, and bravery, and there was a large party who supported him for the Imamah. But the other faction of the Shiite asserted that Husayn had actually designated his son Ali to be his successor in the Imamah.[23] It was shortly after the death of Ibn Zubair that Muhammad ibn Hanifiyya went along with Zain al-Abidin to Mecca to see if they could not determine which of the two really had the right of succession. "Muhammad said that he was the most worthy as he was the son of Ali ibn Abu Talib. But Zayn al-Abidin replied to his uncle, 'Fear God and make no such claim,' and accordingly they agreed to appeal to the Black Stone. Muhammad prayed for a sign, but no answer came; then Zayn al-Abidin prayed, and the stone was so agitated that it nearly fell out of the wall of the Kaaba. Then came, in eloquent Arabic, the answer that he was the true Imam after Husayn, to which decision Muhammad consented." [g][20][24] After this settlement at the Kaaba, Zayn al-Abidin returned to Medina, where he led quiet life, with only a few intimate friends who visited him for religious purposes.[20]

Social Status[edit]

Zain al-Abidin was held in special regard not only by the adherents of the Household of the Prophet, who considered him their fourth Imam and the only religious authority of his time, but also by the learned circles of the Muslims in general. His period in Medina was that of a growing interest in the Traditions of the Prophet, especially those which dealt with legal matters. It was the time of the ‘seven lawyers of Medina’, who were engaged in collecting these Traditions and formulating legal opinions. Among the Medinan scholars, Zain al-Abidin was considered to be an eminent traditionist. The famous Medinese lawyer of this period Said ibn al-Musayyib, regarded the Imam with the highest esteem. Another great jurist and traditionist of the period, al-Zuhri though he was attached to the court of the Umayyad, was also a great friend and admirer of the Imam.[h] Thus, from the overwhelming number of reports recorded by both Shiite and Sunni authorities, it would seem that Zain al-Abidin was widely respected by the community in general for his extraordinary qualities, such as the long duration of his prayer, his piety, his forbearance, his learning, and his generosity.[18][26]

Perhaps the most eloquent testimony to his exalted position is the famous ode composed in his praise by Al-Farazdaq, an eminent poet of his time. In it, Farazdaq refers to the occasion when the Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was overshadowed by the respect which the people showed towards the great-grandson of the Prophet. It was at the time of the hajj when both of them were trying to reach through the crowds around the Kaaba to get to the Black Stone. The people gave way to Zain al-Abidin while the Caliph struggled desperately. This deeply offended the Caliph, and, in a sarcastic tone, he enquired who the person had been to whom the people had shown such preference. Farazdaq, who was present at the scene, thereupon composed an ode and recited it, addressing himself to Hisham. It is a masterpiece not only of Farazdaq’s output but of Arabic literature in general.[i][18][27][28]

Asceticism[edit]

It is said that Zayn al-Abidin saw a beggar weeping, so he had mercy on him and said: “If the world was in the hand of this person and then it dropped from it, he had not to weep for it.[29] The Imām renounced worldly pleasures, but this does not mean that he yielded to poverty and feebleness, rather he was pious with what God prohibited.[30] However, As the Imām was ascetic and turned away from the world,[j] the Sufis regarded him as one of their figures and wrote a full biography about him.[31] however he led a life different from that of the Sufis as his asceticism was psychological, rational, and internal rather than otherwise.[k] It is narrated that on circumambulating the Kaaba, the Imām heard a man asking God for patience, hence he turned to the man and said to him: “You are asking (God) for tribulation. Say: O God, I ask You for well-being and gratitude for it.[33] It is also narrated that a person questioned Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin about asceticism, and he replied: “Asceticism is of ten degrees: The highest degree of asceticism is the lowest degree of piety. The highest degree of piety is the lowest degree of certainty. The highest degree of certainty is the lowest degree of satisfaction. Asceticism is in one verse of Allah’s Book: Hence that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you.[l] As for Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Shiite Imam, when he was appointed a successor (to authority), a Sufi said to him: ‘The Imām should eat rough food and wear coarse garments.’ The Imām was resting on his elbow, so he sat down and refuted this view, saying: Yousif b. Ya‘qub was a prophet; nevertheless he wore silk-like garments embroidered with gold. Allah did not prohibit clothing nor did he prohibit food. However, He wanted the Imām to be fair and just.’ Then he recited these words of Him: Say: Who has forbidden the adornment which He has brought forth for His creatures.[m][34][35]

Selected Sayings[edit]

  • Who honors himself dishonors worldly things.[36]
  • (The position of) patience in faith is like that of the head in the body, and he who has no patience has no faith. [37][38]
  • It has been written in the Bible: 'Seek not the knowledge of what you do not do until you do what you come to know. If knowledge is not put into practice, it increases its possessor nothing except unbelief and remoteness from God.[39]
  • All good is in man's safeguarding his soul.[40]
  • When been slandered by a mean person he said: If I have what you say, I will ask Allah to forgive me. If I do not have what you say, I will ask Allah to forgive you.[41]
  • He would secretly carry food on his shoulders for the poor and needy, and when al-Zuhri asked him; what that is on your back, he said: I am making preparations for a journey.[n] I am preparing provisions for it and carrying them to a secure place.[o][42]
  • The most lovable ways for Allah are two : Repelling rage with clemency and misfortune with forbearance.[43]
  • He has also quoted sayings of his grandfather Ali, the first shiite Imam, which is stated in response to some questions of his companion, Zayd ibn Suhan:

[S]eparation from You has wrapped me in the clothing of my misery! My dreadful crimes have deadened my heart, so bring it to life by a repentance from You![p]

... Act toward me with the forgiveness and mercy of which You are worthy! Act not toward me with the chastisement and vengeance of which I am worthy! By Your mercy, O Most Merciful of the merciful![q]

... My God, who can have tasted the sweetness of your love, then wanted another in place of You? Who can have become intimate with Your nearness, then sought removal from You?[r]

...O God, three traits have prevented me from asking Thee and one trait has urged me on: I am prevented by a command Thou hast commanded in which I have been slow, a prohibition Thou hast prohibited toward which I have hurried, and a favour through which Thou hast favoured for which I have not given sufficient thanks. I am urged to ask Thee by Thy gratuitous bounty upon him who turns his face toward Thee and comes to Thee with a good opinion, ... knowing that pardoning great sins is nothing great for Thee. [s] ... [T]ake me through Thy generosity to Thy gratuitous bounty and take me not through Thy justice to what I deserve! I am not the first beseecher to beseech Thee and Thou bestowed upon him while he deserved withholding, nor am I the first to ask from Thee and Thou wast bounteous toward him while he merited deprivation.[t]

Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin[44]

Zayd: "Which authority is the most overcoming and strongest?.

Ali: “Caprice.”

Zayd: “Which lowliness is the most lowly?”

Ali: “Clinging to the world.”

Zayd: “Which poverty is the most intense?”

Ali: “Unbelief after belief.”

Zayd: “Which creed is the most devious?”

Ali: “Unreal creed.”

Zayd: “Which creature is the most miserable?”

Ali: “It is he who sells his world for the world of other than him.”

Zayd: “Which creature is the strongest?”

Ali: “The clement one.”

Zayd: “Which of men is the most clement?”

Ali: “It is he who does not become angry.”

Zayd: “Which of men is the most foolish?”

Ali: “It is he who is deceived by the world, while he sees its changeable conditions.”

Zayd: “ Which catastrophe is the most intense?”

Ali: “The catastrophe in the religion.”[45]

Works[edit]

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya[edit]

According to Chittick the Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is the oldest prayer manual in Islamic sources and one of the most seminal works of Islamic spirituality of the early period.[21] Shiite tradition considers this book worthy of the utmost veneration, ranking it behind only the Quran and Ali’s Nahj al-Balagha. It may seem that this prayer book deals exclusively with Islamic spirituality, But it also provides teachings that are applicable on many different levels, from the theological (in the broadest sense of the term) to the social. For example, the traditional category of ‘faith’ is concerned with Allah, the angels, the prophets, the scriptures, the Last Day, and the ‘measuring’ (qadar) of both good and evil. These objects of faith form the basic subject matter of most of Islamic thought as developed in kalaam philosophy, and theoretical Sufism. Imam Zain al-Abidin discusses all of these in the Sahifa sometimes briefly and sometimes in detail. The Imam also refers frequently to the domain of Islamic practices, or the sharia in the wide sense.[u][46]

The Fifteen Whispered Prayers[edit]

The Fifteen Whispered Prayers also known as The Fifteen Munajat, is a collection of fifteen prayers attributed to Zayn al-Abidin which some researchers regard it as a supplementary part of the latter collection.[47] These Prayers enable a person to recite the prayer which is in most accordance with his present mood and feeling.[48][49][50] The prayers start with 'repentance', as repentance is the first step towards a genuine communion with God.[49]

Supplication of Abu Hamza al-Thumali[edit]

Abu Hamza al-Thumali has related that during the month of Ramadhan, Imam Zayn al-Abidin used to spend a greater part of the night in prayers and when it used to be the time of beginning of the fast he recited a supplication which later known as Du'a Abi Hamzah al-Thumali (The supplication of Abi Hamzah al-Thumali). This supplication has been recorded in the book Misbah al-Mutahijjid of Shaykh Tusi.[51]

Treatise on Rights[edit]

The right of charity (sadaqa) is that you know it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses. If you deposit it in secret, you will be more confident of it than if you deposit it in public...[v]

Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin[52]
Imam's desecrated grave at Al-Baqi' in Saudi Arabia

Zain al-Abidin ’s ‘Treatise on Rights’ is the only work attributed to him other than supplications or relatively short sayings and letters. According to Chittick this treatise is especially important for the manner in which it deals with many of the same themes as the Sahifa in a different style and language. As the Imam makes eminently clear in this book, a hierarchy of priorities must always be observed: The individual comes before the social, the spiritual before the practical, and knowledge before action. Each human being has a long series of social duties, but these depend upon his more essential duties, which are first, faith in Allah, and second, placing one’s own person into the proper relationship with the Divine Reality.[46]

Death[edit]

Ali ibn Husayn was the only son of Hussein ibn Ali who survived the Battle of Karbala in 680 when he was twenty three years old.[20] For, he could not take part in the battle due to his illness, and was thus saved from the general massacre. Once again when he was led as a prisoner before Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad in Kufa, the latter ordered his execution but left him alive at the entreaty of his aunt, Zaynab.[18][53][54] Later on, however, he was poisoned by Umayyad ruler Ial-Walid through the instigation of the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in Medina. The date of his death is most often given as 94/712-13 or 95/713-14; other dates mentioned are 92/710-11, 93/711-12, 99/717-18 and 100/718-19. He was buried next to his uncle, Ḥasan, in the cemetery of Al-Baqi' cemetery in Medina.[6][55][56] After his death many people found out that their livelihood had come from him. He would permanently provide 100 families in Medina with their sustenance. Every night he used to go out with a sack of food on his back, knocking at the doors of the indigent, and gave freely to whoever answered while covering his face in order not to be recognized.[18][20]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Other dates mentioned are 33/653-4, 36/656-7, 37/657-8, 50/670[15]
  2. ^ Her name has also been given as Shah-Zanan, Sulaafa, Ghazaala, and Shahr-Banuya, among others.[15]
  3. ^ She is said to have died shortly after giving birth to her only son Ali.[10]
  4. ^ Quran, 12:84
  5. ^ From Shaykh as-Sadooq, al-Khisal; quoted in al-Ameen, A’yan, IV, 195. The same is quoted from Bin Shahraashoob’s Manaqib in Bih’ar al-Anwar, XLVI, 108; Cf. similar accounts, Ibid, pp. 108-10
  6. ^ Canon Sell, op. cit., p. II, quoting Sahifat'l-Abidin, p. 184.
  7. ^ The poet Sayyid al-Himyari and Abū Khālid al-Kābuli were among those who confessed the Imāmah of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, but withdrew from it. Abū Khālid al-Kābuli went to zany al-Abidin afterwards, and the Imam received him warmly asking: “Welcome, Kankar! You had not visited us! What was wrong with you?” Abū Khālid replied with submission and respect: “Praise belongs to Allah, Who did not cause me to die until I knew my Imām.” The Imām asked him: “How did you know your Imām?” Abū Khālid answered: “You called me with my name with which my mother called me. I was blind to see my affairs. I served Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya for a time of my life. I had no doubt that he was the Imām till I asked him by the Sacredness of Allah, the Sacredness of the Messenger, and the Sacredness of the Commander of the faithful, so he guided me to you and said: ‘‘Ali b. al-Husayn is the Imām over me, you, and all the creatures.’[f][20][24]
  8. ^ His honorific, Zain al-Abidin (the Ornament of the Worshipers), which refers to his devotion to prayer, is said to have been bestowed upon him by this great jurist and traditionist al-Zuhri,[25] who also called him the best of the Hashemites and narrated many Hadiths from him (W. Madelung, art. A’li bin Al-Husain’, Encyclopedia Iranica, I, 850.)
  9. ^ It is worth quoting a few lines from this ode as the authenticity of this famous qasida of Farazdaq, and also the occasion at which it was composed and recited, has never been questioned by anyone. It must therefore be taken as a most reliable and useful contemporary document describing Zayn al-'Abidin. It goes as follows: It is someone whose footsteps are known by every place / And it is he who is known to the bayt in Mecca,(i.e. the Kaaba) The most frequented sanctuary; / It is he who is the son of the best of all men of Allah;(i.e. the Prophet Muhammad) / and it is he who is the most pious and devout, the purest and most unstained, the chastest and most righteous, a symbol [for Islam]; / This is Ali [b. al-Husain] whose parent is the Prophet; / This is the son of Fatimah, if you do not know who he is; / Whosoever recognizes his Allah knows also the primacy and superiority of this man; / Because the religion has reached the nations through his House...[20][27]
  10. ^ This was underlined by al-Zuhri when he was asked about the most ascetic of all the people and he answered: “The most ascetic of all the people is Ali b. al-Husayn.
  11. ^ it is said that the Imams asceticism have been psychological, rational, and internal. For, such asceticism is more useful than that based on hunger and wearing wool, as perception accepts the first kind of asceticism and it is that which deep innate nature of life establishes; as for garment, it is pretense.”[32]
  12. ^ Quran, 57:23
  13. ^ Quran, 7:32
  14. ^ i.e. death
  15. ^ “Let this boy of mine carry the flour instead of you,” asked al-Zuhri . “ But I do not disdain what will save me during my journey and makes good my going to Whom I will go." Said the Imam. After some days al-Zuhri met him and asked him: “Son of Allah’s Apostle, I do not see any mark of that journey which you ended?” And the Imām explained what he had meant by journey[42]
  16. ^ Quoted from The Fifteen Whispered Prayers (first prayer)
  17. ^ Quoted from the Fifteen Whispered Prayers(fifth prayer)
  18. ^ Quoted from the Fifteen Whispered Prayers (ninth prayer)
  19. ^ Quoted from Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (12th Supplication)
  20. ^ Quoted from Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (13th Supplication)
  21. ^ He emphasizes the absolute necessity of following Allah’s guidelines as set down in the Quran and the hadith in both individual and social life. Hence the Sahifa provides many specific social teachings as well as general injunctions, such as the necessity of establishing justice in society.[46]
  22. ^ Quoted from the Treatise on Rights, Right of Charitty

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 14
  2. ^ Kitab Al Irshad, Shaykh Mufid
  3. ^ Shabbar, S.M.R. (1997). Story of the Holy Ka’aba. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  4. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 15
  5. ^ Shaykh al-Mufid. "The Infallibles – Taken from Kitab al Irshad". Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d WOFIS (2001). A Brief History of the Fourteen Infallibles (3rd ed.). Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services. 
  7. ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 111. 
  8. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 16
  9. ^ a b c ibn Khallikan. Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary 2. p. 209. 
  10. ^ a b Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 58
  11. ^ a b c Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 21
  12. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 20
  13. ^ Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. State University of New York Press. p. 201. 
  14. ^ Imam Ali ibn al-Hussein (2001). The Complite Edition of the Treatise on Rights. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 16. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Imam Ali ubnal Husain 2009, pp. 7–10
  16. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 450
  17. ^ Dungersi Ph.D., M. M. (December 1, 2013). A Brief Biography of Ali Bin Hussein (as). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 1494328690. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Madelung, Wilferd. "ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  19. ^ Muh’sin al-Ameen al-A’mili, A’yan as-Sheea’h, Damascus, 1935, IV, 189.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 101–111. 
  21. ^ a b c Imam Ali ubnal Husain 2009, p. 10
  22. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 163
  23. ^ a b c Lalani, Arzina R. (March 9, 2001). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. I. B. Tauris. p. 31,78. ISBN 978-1860644344. 
  24. ^ a b Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, pp. 94–96
  25. ^ jafri 1979, p. 246
  26. ^ Imam Ali ubnal Husain 2009, p. 7
  27. ^ a b Imam Ali ubnal Husain 2009, pp. 7–8
  28. ^ jafri 1979, pp. 243–44
  29. ^ Shaykh Hurr al-`Amuli. Al- Fuṣūl al-muhimma fī taʼlīf al-umma. Najaf: An-Naǧaf : Dār an-Nuʻmān li'ṭ-Ṭibāʻa wa'n-Našr,. p. 192. 
  30. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, pp. 67–68
  31. ^ Munūfī, al-Sayyid Maḥmūd Abū al-Fayḍ (1967). Jamharat al-Awliyā', vol. 2. Al-Qāhirah Mu'assasat al-Ḥalabī. p. 71. 
  32. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, pp. 68–69
  33. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 229
  34. ^ Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein ibn Musa ibn Babawayh al-Qummi Known as (Sheikh Sadooq). UYUN AKHBAR AL-REZA The Source of Traditions on Imam Reza. Qom: Ansariyan Publications. 
  35. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 331
  36. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000
  37. ^ Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni. Usūl al-Kāfi, Vol. 2. p. 89. 
  38. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 351
  39. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 355
  40. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 361
  41. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 53
  42. ^ a b Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 67
  43. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, p. 258
  44. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, pp. 378–489
  45. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi 2000, pp. 474–475
  46. ^ a b c Imam Ali ubnal Husain 2009, p. 28
  47. ^ Chirri, Mohamad Jawad (1986). "Al-Sahifat Al-Sajjadiyya" (Revised ed.). The Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 
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References[edit]

  • Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir (2000). The Life of Imām Zayn al-Abidin (as). Translated by Jāsim al-Rasheed. Iraq: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. 
  • Imam Ali ubnal Husain (2009). Al-Saheefah Al-Sajjadiyyah Al-Kaamelah. Translated with an Introduction and annotation by Willian C. Chittick With a foreword by S. H. M. Jafri. Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications. 
  • Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (1979). The Origins and Early Development of Sheea’h Islam. Beirut: Oxford University Press. 

External links[edit]

Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Banu Quraish
Born: 5th Sha‘bān 38 AH 657 CE Died: 25th Muharram 95 AH 713 CE
Shia Islam titles
Preceded by
Husayn ibn Ali
4th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam
680 – 713
3rd Imam of Ismaili Shi'a Islam
Succeeded by
Muhammad al-Baqir
Successor
Succeeded by
Zayd ibn Ali
Zaidi successor