The Haliacmon (Modern Greek: Αλιάκμονας, Aliákmonas; formerly: Ἁλιάκμων, Aliákmon or Haliákmōn; Slavic: Бистрица, Bistritsa;) is the longest river in Greece, with a total length of 297 km (185 mi).(In Greece there are two rivers longer than Haliakmon, Maritsa (in Greek Εβρος) and Vardar (in Greek Αξιός), but the length of each one of them in Greek territory is less than that of Haliakmon, which flows entirely in Greece). Haliacmon is the traditional English name for the river, but many sources cite the formerly official Katharevousa version of the name, Aliákmon. Today, the only official variant is the demotic Aliákmonas. It flows through the Greek regions of West Macedonia (Kastoria, Grevena and Kozani regional units) and Central Macedonia (Imathia and Pieria regional units).
Τhe name (in Greek) Αλιάκμονας is composite and derives from άλς (salt, sea) and άκμων (anvil). In Greek mythology Haliakmon was one of the, son of Oceanus and Tethys, according to the allegorical obsessive-anthropomorphic concept, familiar to Ancient Greece Ancient Greeks, on geological upheaval after Deucalion's deluge.
An ancient tradition says that sheep that drank water from Haliakmon would turn their colour to white. This tradition is confirmed by the following record of the Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.) : Similarly in Macedonia, those who want their sheep to be white go to Haliakmon, while those (who want them to be) black (go) to Axios (Vardar).
Ottoman Turks called the river Inje-Kara (tall and black).
Course and tributaries
Before the construction of its diversion dam near the village of Aghia Varvara in the mid-1950's, Haliakmon had no permanent river bed in its lowland course. It often flooded and formed extensive marshes. Its devastating fury in December 1935 remains fresh in memory of the elder inhabitants of the region (Veria and Alexandreia).
The Haliacmon rises in the Gramos mountains in northern Greece, near the border with Albania. In its upper course it flows generally towards the east, and turns southeast near Kastoria. It describes a wide curve around the Vourinos mountains, and turns northeast near the village Paliouria. It feeds the large artificial Lake Polyfytos, that was created after the construction of the namesake hydroelectric dam and consists almost its entire course through the Kozani prefecture. Over the bridge runw the Lake Polyfytos Bridge, part of the Athens-Kozani national road. Southeast of Veria, the Haliacmon enters the central Macedonian plains, an area of great importance to agriculture. It flows into the Thermaic Gulf west of the delta of the Axios (Vardar), northeast of the coastal town Methoni.
Haliakmon's tributaries include Gramos, Ladopotamos, Pramoritsa, Grevenitikos, Venetikos and Tripotamos.
Haliakmon contains 33 kinds of fish. These include brown trout, gilt-head bream, sardine, carp, pike, eel, european anchovy, nursehound, bogue, garfish, red porgy, saddled seabream,angler, bream, mediterranean sand smelt, sand steenbras, mullus barbatus, freshwater bass, tuna, salmon,Mediterranean moray, weever, longfin gurnard, dogfish, dusky grouper, school shark and turbot. About 30 of them are indigenous, while the rest were introduced by human intervention. Many of them are considered scarce and one, mavrotsironi, lives nowhere else in the world, i.e. it is endemic.
In antiquity, Claudius Ptolemy called the chain of mountains in which the river rises (northern Pindus) the Canalovii. According to Julius Caesar, the Haliacmon formed the line of demarcation between Macedon and Thessaly. In the upper part of its course it took a southeast direction through Elimiotis, which it watered; and then, continuing to the northeast, formed the boundary between Pieria, Eordaea, and Imathia. In the time of Herodotus the Haliacmon was apparently joined by the Loudias 7, 127, the discharge of the lake of Pella; but a change has taken place in the course of the Loudias, which no longer joins the Haliacmon, but flows directly into the Aegean Sea. The image below shows a wind gap between the Haliacmon and Loudias watersheds that is the probable ancient course of the Haliacmon.
It was the domain of the eponymous river god Haliacmon.
- Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, Glanville Price, Blackwell Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-631-22039-9, p. 316.
- Die Jungtürken und die mazedonische Frage(1890-1918), Mehmet Hacısalihoğlu, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2003, ISBN 3-486-56745-4, s. 42.
- A History of the Crusades, Volume IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States, Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard, Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977, ISBN 0-299-06824-2, p.368.