Alibaba Group

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 30°11′31.12″N 120°11′9.79″E / 30.1919778°N 120.1860528°E / 30.1919778; 120.1860528

Alibaba Group Holding Limited
Type Public
Traded as NYSEBABA
Industry Internet, e-commerce, computer software
Founded Hangzhou, China (4 April 1999 (1999-04-04))
Headquarters Hangzhou, China
Area served Worldwide
Key people
  • Jack Ma (Executive)
  • Jonathan Lu (CEO)
Revenue Increase USD 7.5 billion (2013) [1]
Employees Increase22,000 (March 2014)[2]
  • Alibaba Cloud Computing
  • Ltd.
  • Alisoft Holding Limited
  • AutoNavi Holdings Ltd
  • China Yahoo!
  • ChinaVision Media Group Limited
  •, Inc.
  • eTao
Alibaba Group
Traditional Chinese 阿里巴巴集團
Simplified Chinese 阿里巴巴集团

Alibaba Group Holding Limited (NYSEBABA) is a publicly traded Hangzhou-based group of Internet-based e-commerce businesses, including business-to-business online web portals, online retail and payment services, a shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. In 2012, two of Alibaba’s portals handled 1.1 trillion yuan ($170 billion) in sales, more than competitors eBay and combined.[3] The company primarily operates in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and at closing time, on the date of its historic initial public offering (IPO), 19 September 2014, Alibaba's market value was measured as US$231 billion.[4]

In September 2013, the company sought an IPO in the United States after a deal could not be reached with Hong Kong regulators.[5] Planning occurred over 12 months before the company's market debut in September 2014. The Alibaba ticker symbol is "BABA.N", while the pricing of the IPO initially raised US$21.8 billion.[6][4]

Alibaba's consumer-to-consumer portal Taobao, similar to eBay, features nearly a billion products and is one of the 20 most-visited websites globally. The Group's websites accounted for over 60% of the parcels delivered in China by March 2013,[3] and 80% of the nation's online sales by September 2014.[4] Alipay, an online payment escrow service, accounts for roughly half of all online payment transactions within China.[7]

The group began in 1999 when Jack Ma founded the website, a business-to-business portal to connect Chinese manufacturers with overseas buyers. Alibaba is planning to enter India and was in talks with Snapdeal in September 2014.[8]



The company was founded in current CEO Ma's apartment.[9] Ma explained:

Alibaba headquarters in Hangzhou

One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, and I was thinking Alibaba is a good name. And then a waitress came, and I said, "Do you know about Alibaba?" And she said yes. I said, "What do you know about Alibaba?", and she said, "Alibaba and 40 thieves". And I said, "Yes, this is the name!" Then I went onto the street and found 30 people and asked them, "Do you know Alibaba?" People from India, people from Germany, people from Tokyo and China … they all knew about Alibaba. Alibaba — open sesame. Alibaba is a kind, smart business person, and he helped the village. So … easy to spell, and globally known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We also registered the name "Alimama", in case someone wants to marry us!"[10][11]


On 5 September 2014, the group—in a regulatory filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission—set a US$60- to $66- per-share price range for its scheduled initial public offering (IPO), the final price of which would be determined after an international roadshow. The listing on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is expected to raise more than $20 billion, making it the largest technology listing in U.S. history, exceeding that of Facebook.[12]

A roadshow, commencing with U.S. cities New York, Boston, Baltimore, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Denver—and extending to Singapore, Hong Kong and London—began on 5 September 2014, and was expected to last until 18 September 2014. Ma explained that an aim of the roadshow was to gauge the investor interest in Alibaba shares.[12]

On 18 September 2014, Alibaba's IPO priced at US$68, raising US$21.8 billion for the company and investors. Alibaba is the biggest U.S. IPO in history.[13][14]

On September 19, 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE at an opening price of $92.70 at 11:55am EST.

Company timeline[edit]

  • In December 1998, Jack Ma and 17 other founders released their first online marketplace, named "Alibaba Online".
  • From 1999 to 2000, Alibaba Group raised a total of US$25 million from SoftBank, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity and some other institutions.[15]
  • In December 2001, achieved profitability.
  • In May 2003, Taobao was founded as a consumer e-commerce platform.
  • In December 2004, Alipay, which started as a service on the Taobao platform, became a separate business.
  • In October 2005, Alibaba Group took over the operation of China Yahoo! as part of its strategic partnership with Yahoo! Inc.
  • In November, 2007, successfully listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
  • In April 2008, Taobao established Taobao Mall (, a retail website, to complement its C2C marketplace.
  • In September 2008, Alibaba Group R&D Institute was established.
  • In September 2009, Alibaba Group established Alibaba Cloud Computing in conjunction with its 10-year anniversary.
  • In May 2010, Alibaba Group announced a plan to earmark 0.3% of its annual revenues to fund environmental protection initiatives.
  • In October 2010, Taobao beta-launched eTao as a shopping search engine.
  • In June 2011, Alibaba Group reorganized Taobao into three separate companies: Taobao Marketplace, Taobao Mall ( and eTao.
  • In July 2011, Alibaba Cloud Computing launched its first self-developed mobile operating system, Aliyun OS over K-Touch Cloud Smartphone.[16]
  • In January 2012, changed its Chinese name as part of a rebranding exercise.[17]
  • In March 2014, Alibaba group said it will begin the process of filing for an initial public offering in the U.S.[18]
  • Prior to its IPO filing on Form F-1 as a foreign issuer in the U.S., Alibaba undertook an aggressive acquisition spree – previously atypical for the company – acquiring numerous majority and minority stakes in companies including micro-blogging service Weibo, China Vision Holdings, and car sharing service Lyft.[19]
  • On 6 May 2014 Alibaba Group filed registration documents to go public in the U.S. in what may be one of the biggest initial public offerings in American history.[20]
  • On 5 June 2014 Alibaba group agreed to take a 50 percent stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club, winners of the 2013 AFC Champions League, for 1.2 billion yuan ($192 million).[21]
  • In June 2014, Alibaba acquired the Chinese mobile internet firm UCWeb. The price of the purchase has not been disclosed but the company did claim that the acquisition creates the biggest merger in the history of China's internet sector.[22]

Companies and affiliated entities[edit][edit] Limited (simplified Chinese: 阿里巴巴网络有限公司; traditional Chinese: 阿里巴巴網絡有限公司), the primary company of Alibaba Group, is the world’s largest online business-to-business trading platform for small businesses.[citation needed]

Founded in Hangzhou in eastern China, has three main services. The company’s English language portal handles sales between importers and exporters from more than 240 countries and regions.[17] The Chinese portal was developed for domestic business-to-business trade in China. In addition, offers a transaction-based retail website,, which allows smaller buyers to buy small quantities of goods at wholesale prices.

In 2013, launched a direct channel that is responsible for $30 million in daily transaction value.[23]


Main article: Taobao

Taobao Marketplace, or Taobao, is China's largest consumer-to-consumer online shopping platform.[24] Founded in 2003, it offers a variety of products for retail sale. In October 2013 it was the third most visited web site in China, according to[25] Taobao's growth was attributed to offering free registration and commission-free transactions using a free third-party payment platform.[26]

Advertising makes up 85 percent of the company's total revenue, allowing it to break even in 2009. Taobao's 2010 profit was estimated to be 1.5 billion yuan (US $235.7 million), only about 0.4 percent of their total sales figure of 400 billion yuan (US $62.9 billion) that year, way below the industry average of 2 percent, according to iResearch estimates.[27]

According to Zhang Yu, the director of Taobao, the number of stores on Taobao with annual sales under 100 thousand yuan increased by 60% between 2011 and 2013. Over the same period, the number of stores with sales between 10 thousand and 1 million yuan increased by 30%, and the number of stores with sales over 1 million yuan increased by 33%.[28] Taobao's total sales (including Tmall) exceeded 1 trillion yuan (USD 160 billion) in 2012. And on 11 November 2012, the biggest online shopping promotion activity, Taobao accomplished 19.1 billion yuan (USD 3.07 billion) sales in one day.[29][edit]

Main article: Tmall was introduced in April 2008 as an online retail platform to complement the Taobao consumer-to-consumer portal and became a separate business in June 2011. As of October 2013 it was the eighth most visited web site in China,[25] offering global brands to an increasingly affluent Chinese consumer base.

Juhuasuan[edit] is a group shopping website in China. It was launched by Taobao in March 2010 and became a separate business in October 2011. Juhuasuan offers "flash sales", products that are available only for a fixed time period, which can last from one or two days to a full month. To buy at the discounted price, buyers must purchase the item within that defined time.

eTao[edit] was beta-launched by Taobao in October 2010 as a comparison shopping website, and became a separate business in June 2011. It offers search results from most Chinese online shopping platforms,[citation needed] including product searches, sales and coupon searches. Online shoppers can use the site to compare prices from different sellers and identify products to buy. According to the Alibaba Group web site, eTao offers products from Amazon China, Dangdang, Gome, Yihaodian, Nike China and Vancl, as well as Taobao and Tmall.[17]


Launched in 2004, (simplified Chinese: 支付宝; traditional Chinese: 支付寶; pinyin: Zhīfùbǎo) is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees.[30] According to analyst research report, Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China's online payment market in February 2014. According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012.[31]

Alipay provides an escrow service, in which consumers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing money to the seller. This service was offered for what the company says are China's weak consumer protection laws, which have reduced consumer confidence in C2C and even B2C quality control.[citation needed]

The company says Alipay operates with more than 65 financial institutions including Visa and Mastercard[32] to provide payment services for Taobao and Tmall as well as more than 460,000 Chinese businesses. Internationally, more than 300 worldwide merchants use Alipay to sell directly to consumers in China.[citation needed] It currently supports transactions in 12 foreign currencies.

The payment methods are MasterCard, Visa, Boleto Bancário, Transferência Bancária, Maestro, WebMoney, and QIWI Кошелек as of May 2014.[33]

The PBOC, China's central bank, issued licensing regulations in June 2010 for third-party payment providers. It also issued separate guidelines for foreign-funded payment institutions. Because of this, Alipay, which accounts for half of China's non-bank online payment market, was restructured as a domestic company controlled by Alibaba CEO Jack Ma in order to facilitate the regulatory approval for the license.[34] The 2010 transfer of Alipay's ownership was controversial, with media reports in 2011 that Yahoo! and Softbank (Alibaba Group's controlling shareholders) were not informed of the sale for nominal value. Chinese business publications Century Weekly criticised Ma, who stated that Alibaba Group's board of directors was aware of the transaction.[35] The incident was widely criticized in foreign and Chinese media as harming foreign trust in making Chinese investments.[36] The ownership dispute was resolved by Alibaba Group, Yahoo!, and Softbank in July 2011.[37]

In 2013 Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yuebao (余额宝).[38] As of June 2013 the company still had what it called "a minor paperwork problem" with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, but the company said that they planned to expand the product while these are sorted out.[39]

Alibaba Cloud Computing[edit]

Alibaba Cloud Computing ( aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce data mining e-commerce data processing, and data customization. It was established in September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group.[17] It has R&D centers and operators in Hangzhou, Beijing and Silicon Valley [40] In July 2014, Aliyun entered into a partnership deal with Inspur, the largest high-end cloud computing company in China.[41]


Launched in 2010, is an online retail service made up of mostly small sellers offering products to online buyers.

China Yahoo![edit]

In October 2005, Alibaba Group formed a strategic partnership with Yahoo! and acquired China Yahoo! (, a Chinese portal that focuses on Internet services like news, email, and search. In April 2013, Alibaba Group announced that, as part of the agreement to buy back the Yahoo! Mail stake, technological support for China Yahoo! Mail service would be suspended and the China Yahoo! Mail account migration would begin. Several options were offered to users to make the transition as smooth as possible, and China Yahoo! users had four months to migrate their accounts to the Aliyun mail service, the Yahoo! Mail service in the United States, or to another third-party e-mail provider of the user's choice.[42] Yahoo! China closed its mail service on 19 August 2013. E-mails sent to Yahoo! China accounts can be forwarded to an Alimail box until 31 December 2014. Users are also allowed to transfer e-mail accounts to or any other e-mail service. It is estimated there are no more than a million users with Yahoo! Mail for China and chances are they also own other e-mail accounts.[43]


In October 2013, the company's chairman Jack Ma announced that the company would no longer use Tencent's messaging application WeChat, and would henceforth promote its own messaging application and service, Laiwang.[44]

ChinaVision Media Group[edit]

In March 2014, Alibaba agreed to acquire a controlling stake in ChinaVision Media Group for $804 million. The two firms announced they would establish a strategic committee for potential future opportunities in online entertainment and other media areas.[45]

Youku Tudou[edit]

In April 2014, Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity company controlled by Alibaba’s founder, Jack Ma, agreed to acquire a combined 18.5 percent stake in Youku Tudou, which broadcasts a series of popular television programs and other videos over the Internet.[46]

11 Main[edit]

On 11 June 2014, Alibaba launched U.S. shopping site 11 Main. The 11 Main marketplace hosts more than 1,000 merchants in categories such as clothing, fashion accessories and jewelry as well as interior goods and arts and crafts and it plans to keep adding more, the company said.[47][48]

Corporate governance[edit]

As of January 2013, Jack Ma was Alibaba Group's chief executive officer.[24] Ma announced his intention to step down from this post on 15 January 2013.

CEO Jonathan Lu confirmed the planned IPO again in July 2013, quoted in the press as saying, "We are ready and can do an IPO any time." He also revealed that the firm has still not decided where to list, but is looking at the stock exchanges of New York and Hong Kong.[49] On 25 September 2013, a media report confirmed that negotiations with Hong Kong regulators had deteriorated and a US IPO is being sought by the company as of the date of the report. Analysts estimated that the Alibaba IPO would have added US$25 million to the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing (HKEx)'s annual revenues.[5]

Gold Supplier controversy[edit] offers a Gold Supplier membership to try to ensure that each seller is genuine.[citation needed] "To qualify for a Gold Supplier membership, a supplier must complete an authentication and verification process by a reputable third-party security service provider appointed by".[citation needed] While the majority of suppliers are reported to be genuine,[citation needed] there have been cases of sellers seeking to defraud unsuspecting buyers. In February, 2011, controversy ensued when Alibaba's corporate office admitted that it had granted the mark of integrity of its "China Gold Supplier" program to more than 2,000 dealers that had subsequently defrauded buyers; the firm's share price dropped "abruptly" after the announcement.[50] A statement from the firm reported than Yan Limin, the General Manager of at the time, had been dismissed in March for "misconduct"; Phil Muncaster of UK's The Register additionally reported that "a further 28 employees had been involved in dodgy dealings".[51]

As the Economist noted, the company's response has conflicting components: Alibaba's promulgated view that its corrective actions indicate its commitment to quality and integrity (where it contrasts itself with other scandal-associated Chinese business sectors), versus a damage control view suggesting that the subscription-driven, third-party verified "China Gold Supplier" program was endangered by diminished trust in its endorsement system, removing the incentive for global buyers to choose Alibaba as their business-to-business service, thus more broadly endangering Alibaba through impact on its brand and capabilities (the latter via the "defenestration of senior people").[50] Overall, the scandal has placed the head of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma—who is described as having been furious over the scandal—in a position to personally fight to win back trust.[52]

Research and development[edit]

Alibaba introduced the Alibaba Group R&D institute in 2008. One year later, Alibaba filed around 350 patent and utility model applications.[53]

Brick and mortar stores[edit]

According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013 to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate company Wanda.[54]

Shark fin sales[edit]

In December 2008, Corporation, the parent corporation of and, announced that all Alibaba group websites will be shark fin-free on 1 January 2009.[55][56]

Uranium sales[edit]

In May 2012, a U.S. law enforcement agent posing as an American broker representing persons in Iran, posted an advert on seeking to purchase uranium. In August 2013, Patrick Campbell of Sierra Leone was arrested at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. Mr Campbell is accused of seeking to arrange the export of the yellowcake from Sierra Leone to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, packed in drums and disguised as the mineral chromite. When confronted, he admitted to having brought a sample of raw uranium ore with him, the complaint says.[57] As of 23 August 2013, the listing was removed from as it was in violation of's policy on Firearms, Ammunition and Weapons: "Any servicing, instruction, processing, or aid of producing any biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, or any other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) or its known associated agents is strictly prohibited by international law and is accordingly prohibited on the Site."[58]


  1. ^ "2011年阿里集团收入达28亿美元 利润率超40%" (in Chinese). Sohu. 2012-06-07. 
  2. ^ "Alibaba group FAQs". 2012-06-07. 
  3. ^ a b "E-commerce in China: The Alibaba phenomenon". The Economist. 23 March 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c LIANA B. BAKER, JESSICA TOONKEL, RYAN VLASTELICA (19 September 2014). "Alibaba surges 38 percent on massive demand in market debut". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "UPDATE 3-U.S. to get coveted Alibaba IPO after Hong Kong talks founder". Reuters. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "IPO launch of Alibaba pushed back by a week". China National News. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "Alibaba: The world’s greatest bazaar". The Economist. 23 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "Alibaba in funding talks with Snapdeal". The Times of India. 18 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Alibaba’s IPO Filing: Everything You Need to Know - Digits - WSJ". Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Where did Alibaba, the brand name, come from?". Wordlab. 2007-10-15. 
  11. ^ The original forum post referred to in the wordlab article; it does not appear to have been posted by Alibaba staff
  12. ^ a b "Alibaba IPO expected to be biggest technology listing in US history". Big News 6 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  13. ^ "Alibaba's IPO Priced at $68 a Share". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "Alibaba prices at $68, becomes top U.S. IPO". USA Today. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Company Overview". Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  16. ^ Jones, Terril Yue (28 July 2011). "UPDATE 2-Alibaba launches smartphone running its Cloud OS". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Alibaba Group Company Overview". Alibaba Group Company Overview (Web Site). Alibaba Group. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  18. ^ Alibaba picks U.S. for IPO; in talks with six banks for lead roles,
  19. ^ "Alibaba Continues Pre-IPO Spending Spree". PrivCo. February 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Ryan Mac and Brian Solomon. "Chinese E-commerce Giant Alibaba Files For IPO". 
  21. ^ "China's Alibaba to buy 50% stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club". 
  22. ^ "Alibaba continues quest to own the Chinese internet". CNN. 
  23. ^ Hsu, Alex (17 Jul 2013). "Alibaba’s Launches New Direct Channel, Responsible for 30 Million USD Per Day in Transactions Value". BrightWire News. 
  24. ^ a b Einhorn, Bruce (15 January 2013). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Is Moving On, With an IPO Looming". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 16 January 2013 
  25. ^ a b "Taobao's Alexa Statistics". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  26. ^ Zhe, Sun (Jan 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China. 
  27. ^ Zhe, Sun (Jan 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China. 
  28. ^ Hsu, Alex (17 Jul 2013). "Alibaba’s Taobao Continues to Attract New Stores, Focuses on Personalized Services, Store Branding and Customized Contracts". BrightWire News. 
  29. ^ Jude. "Total Taobao Sales Exceeded 1 Trillion Yuan in 2012". China Internet Watch. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  30. ^ Zhe, Sun (Jan 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China. 
  31. ^ John Watling (14 February 2014). "China’s Internet Giants Lead in Online Finance". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "About Alipay". Alipay. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  33. ^ (free registration required)
  34. ^ Wang, Shanshan (27 May 2011). "Alipay Awarded Third-Party Payment License". Caixin Online. 
  35. ^ "How Jack Ma's Mistake Damaged China's Market". Caixin Online. 14 June 2011. 
  36. ^ "Jack Ma Talks To China Entrepreneur Magazine About The Alipay Case (UPDATED)". DigiCha. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  37. ^ Rusli, Evelyn M. (29 July 2011). "Yahoo and Alibaba Resolve Dispute Over Alipay". DealBook. 
  38. ^ Chohan, Usman W. "Financial Innovation in China: Alibaba’s Leftover Treasure - 余额宝". McGill University. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  39. ^ Hsu, Alex (27 June 2013). "Alipay’s Issue with CSRC Only a Paperwork Problem; Alipay Will Continue to Expand Yu E Bao". BrightWire News. 
  40. ^ "". 
  41. ^ "Aliyun & Inspur Partner to Beat Cloud competition". 
  42. ^ Steadman, Ian. (2013-04-22) Yahoo! decides to close its Chinese mail service (Wired UK). Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
  43. ^ "Yahoo!China Closing Mail Service Today". TechNode. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  44. ^ "Alibaba's Jack Ma to dump WeChat service in favour of 'own baby' Laiwang". South China Morning Post. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  45. ^ Donny Kwok and Denny Thomas (12 March 2014). "Alibaba buys ChinaVision stake for $804 million; gains TV, movie content". Reuters. 
  46. ^ NEIL GOUGH (28 April 2014). "Alibaba Buys Stake in Chinese Web TV Company for $1.2 Billion". New York Times. 
  47. ^ Juro Osawa (11 June 2014). "Alibaba Tackles Amazon, eBay on Home Turf". Wall Street Journal. 
  48. ^ "BBC News - China's Alibaba plans US online shop". Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  49. ^ Megan Rose Dickey (9 July 2013). "The New CEO Of China's Most Important E-commerce Company Is Ready To Go Public". Business Insider. 
  50. ^ a b "Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  51. ^ Muncaster, Phil (6 July 2012). "Ex-Alibaba GM cuffed as bribery scandal resurfaces". The Register. London. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  52. ^ Epstein, Gady (11 April 2011). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Fights To Win Back Trust". Forbes. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  53. ^ "Alibaba: Profile, Internationalization, R&D, Patents -". Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  54. ^ Hsu, Alex (3 Jul 2013). "Alibaba to Open Brick and Mortar Stores in Wanda Plazas Across China". BrightWire News. 
  55. ^ "China&#821". Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  56. ^ "Shark fins removed from 'front window' of China-based website, but apparently still available to buyers -". Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  57. ^ "BBC News - Iran nuclear: 'Uranium shoe' man arrested in US". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  58. ^ "Safety & Security Center - Learn How to Enhance the Safety of Your Online Transactions". Retrieved 20 September 2014. 

External links[edit]