Alids

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For other uses, see Aleviler.
For the mainly Syrian-Shi’ite religious group, see Alawis. For the mainly mystical branch of Twelver-Shi’ites in Turkey, see Alevis.

The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali). Shia Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph.

Lines of Descent[edit]

Primarily Sunnis in the Arab world reserve the term sharif or "sherif" for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of Prophet Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali and his daughter Fatima. However ever since the post-Hashemite era began, the term sayyid has been used to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. Arab Shiites use the terms sayyid and habib to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn; see also ashraf.

To try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs during the 19th Century C.E. attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the Noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope (some lines might have been excluded due to lack of proof, although no false lines are included) the resulting "Kitab al-Ashraf" (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.

There are several dynasties of Alid origin:

  • The Ukhaydhirite dynasty which ruled Najd in central Arabia from 862 C.E. till the mid-11th century traced its lineage to Ali through his son Al-Hassan.
  • The Sulaymanid dynasty of Yemen has origin in Hasan ibn Hasan, brother of Zayd ibn Hasan (see Zaydid dynasty above). Hasan had a son named Daud ibn Hasan, who was Sulayman ibn Daud's father, who the dynasty is named after.
  • The Alid dynasty of Yemen originated with Hasan ibn Hasan, brother of Zayd ibn Hasan (see Zaydid dynasty above). Hasan had a son named Ibrahim ibn Hasan, that had a son called Ismail ibn Ibrahim, father of Ibrahim Tabataba ibn Ismail. Tabataba was father of Kassim al Rassi, originally of the dynasty Rassid of the Imams of Yemen.
  • The Alid Dynasty of the Isaaq clan or Banu Isaaq clan of Somalia, who are descended from Ali through their ancestor Isaaq ibn Ahmad al Hashimi. Today, the Isaaq clan form the majority of the northern territory of Somaliland.
  • The Alid dynasty of Sharifs of Sousse (Tunisia) originated with Hasan ibn Hasan, brother of Zayd ibn Hasan (see Zaydid dynasty above). Hasan had a son named Abdallah ibn Hasan, who had a son called Djafar ibn Abdallah. This Djafar ibn Abdallah, grandson of Hasan ibn Hasan, began this dynasty.
  • The Alid dynasty of Sharifs of Morocco (the Alaouite dynasty [1]) began also with Hassan ibn Hassan, brother of Zayd ibn Hasan. Its first member was Muhammad ibn Abdallah, brother of Djafar ibn Abdallah (see above).
  • The Alid Dynasty of the Muse clan or Banu Muse clan of Somalia, who are descended from Ali through there ancestor Muse ibn Mohammed al Hashimi. Today, the Muse clan formed the minority of the northern territory of Somaliland.
Genealogical tree of the Fatimid caliphs (in yellow). Their ancestry from the seven Ismaili imams (in grey) and Muhammad is also shown.
Ali ibn Abi Talib,
Husayn ibn Ali,
Ali Zayn al Abidin ibn Husayn,
Muhammad el Bakir ibn Ali,
Djafar el Sadik ibn Muhammad,
Ismail ibn Djafar,
Muhammad ibn Ismail,
Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ismail),
Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah ibn Muhammad),
Raḍī ʿAbd Allāh az-Zaki (Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Abadullah) and
Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah.
Ali ibn Albi Talib,
Husayn ibn Ali,
Ali Zayn al Abidin ibn Husayn,
Muhammad el Bakir ibn Ali,
Djafar el Sadik ibn Muhammad,
Musa ibn Ja'far al-Kazim,
Hamzah ibn Musa,
Mohammad al-Qasim ibn Hamzah ,
Ahmed ibn Mohammad,
Mohamed ibn Ahmed ,
Ismail ibn Mohamed,
Ja'far ibn Ismail,
Ibrahim ibn Ja'far ,
Mohamed ibn Ibrahim ,
Ali ibn Mohamed,
Mohamed ibn Mohamed,
Feroz Shah ibn Mohamed,
Awoad ibn Feroz Shah ,
Mohamed ibn Awoad ,
Rashid ibn Mohamed,
Ahmed ibn Rashid ,
Gabriel ibn Ahmed,
Isaac ibn Gabriel ,
Safi al-Din ibn Isaac,
Sadruddin ibn Safi al-Din ,
Ali ibn Sadruddin,
Ibrahim ibn Ali,
Sadruddin ibn Ibrahim,
Haider ibn Sadruddin,
Shah Ismail Safavid ibn Haider.

Genealogical Trees[edit]

This is a table of the interrelationships between the different parts of the Alid dynasties:[2]


Ali ibn Abi Talib
Hasan al-Mujtabā al-Husayn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
Fātimah Zayd Qāsim Hasan al-Mu'thannā Muhammad Abu Bakr Ali Zayn
al-Abedin
Ali Abu Hashim
Hasan Yahya Muhammad Abd Allah Talha Hasan
Hasan (Alavids) Maymūnah Umm al-Husayn[3] Ali
Abdallah Daud Hasan Ibrahim Jā`far Muhammad Hasan
Sulayman Ali Ismail Hasan Ali
Sulaymanids
of Yemen
and Mecca
Husayn
Sahib Fakhkh
Ibrahim
Tabataba
Hasan Husayn 'Umar al-Ashraf Zayd Muhammad
al-Bakir
Muhammad Kasim al-Rassi Ubayd Allah Yahya Idris Jā`far al-Ṣādiq
Imams
of Yemen
Hasan al-Utrush Hasan Husayn
Musa al-Djawn Yahya Ibrahim Idris Sulayman Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Jā`far Isa
Ibrahim Ali Abd Allah Idrisids of
Morroco
and
Hammudids
of Spain
Sulaymanids
of the Maghrib
Sharifs
of Morocco
Sharifs
of Sus
Yahya ibn Umar al-Kūfī
Yusuf
al-Ukhaidhir
Husayn
al-Ukhaidhir
Ismāʿīl ibn Jā`far Abdullah al-Aftah Musa
al-Kazim
Ishak Muhammad
al-Dibadj
Banu al-Ukhaidhir Musa Salih Sulayman Muhammad ibn Ismāʿīl Muhammad ibn Abdullah Ali
al-Rida
Ahmad
Muhammad ibn Yusuf Banu Katada of Mecca & Banu Fulayta Banu Salih
of Ghana
Sulaymanid
Sharifs
Hidden Imams Muhammad
al-Djawad
Yusuf ibn Muhammad Fatimid
Caliphs
Musa Ali al-Hadi
Ismāʿīl ibn Yusuf Imams of Alamut Muhammad Hasan
al-Askari
Jā`far
Hassan ibn Ismāʿīl Muhammad
al-Mahdi
Ahmad ibn Hassan
Abu'l-Muqallid Jā`far[4]




Below is a simplified family tree of Husayn ibn Ali. For the ancestors of ibn Ali see the family tree of Muhammad and the family tree of Ali. People in italics are considered by the majority of Shia and Sunni Muslims to be Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House). Twelver Shia also see the 4th to 12th Imamah as Ahl al-Bayt.

Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali[edit]


Muhammad
grandfather
(family tree)
 
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
grandmother
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatimah
mother
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ali
father
(family tree)
(descendants)
1st Shia Imāmah, 4th Sunni Rashidun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhsin ibn Ali
brother
 
Hasan ibn Ali
brother
2nd Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 1st Mustaali Imāmah
 
 
Husayn ibn Ali
3rd Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 2nd Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
 
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
sister
 
Zaynab bint Ali
sister
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shahrbanu
wife
 
Rubab bint Imra al-Qais
wife
 
 
 
Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi
wife
 
 
Umm Ishaq bint Talhah
wife
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatema Sugra bint Husayn
daughter
 
Sakinah bint Husayn
daughter
 
Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn
son
 
Sukayna bint Husayn
daughter
 
Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn
son
 
Fatimah bint Husayn
daughter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mother of ‘Umar
 
 
 
Ali ibn Husayn
son
4th Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 3rdMustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Fatimah bint al-Hasan
daughter-in-law
 
Jayda al-Sindhi
 
 
 
 
 
Umar ibn Husayn
son
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Umar al-Ashraf
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad al-Baqir
grandson
5th Twelver and 4th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Farwah bint al-Qasim
(Umm Farwa)
 
Zayd ibn Ali
grandson
5th Zaidiyyah Imāmah
 
 
Abu Bakr ibn Husayn
son
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Alī
 
Hamidah Khatun
 
 
 
Ja'far al-Sadiq
great-grandson
6th Twelver and 5th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
 
 
Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram bin al-Hasan bin Ali
 
 
Zaynab bint Husayn
daughter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
al-Ḥasan
 
Musa al-Kadhim
great-great-grandson
7th Twelver Imāmah
 
 
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
great-great-grandson
 
 
Isma'il ibn Jafar
great-great-grandson
6th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Unknown
 
Umm Kulthum bint Husayn
daughter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Alī
 
 
 
 
Ummul Banīn Najmah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr
 
Ali ar-Ridha
great-great-great-grandson
8th Twelver Imāmah
 
Sabīkah a.k.a. Khayzurān
 
 
 
 
Muhammad ibn Ismail
great-great-great-grandson
7th and the last Sevener Imāmah and 7th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Fatima
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sumānah
 
Muhammad al-Taqi
great-great-great-great-
grandson
9th Twelver Imāmah
 
 
Unknown
 
Ahmad al-Wafi
great-great-great-great-grandson
8th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Other issue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ali al-Hadi
great-great-great-great-great-grandson
10th Twelver Imāmah
 
Hâdise ( Hadīthah ) / Suzan ( Sūsan ) / Sevil ( Savīl )
 
Other issue
 
Muhammad at-Taqi
great-great-great-great-great-grandson
9th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
Unknown
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan al-Askari
great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson
11th Twelver Imāmah
 
Narjis
 
 
 
 
 
Rabi Abdullah
great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson
10th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad al-Mahdi
great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson
12th and final Twelver Imāmah


Family tree of Hasan ibn Ali[edit]

The Hashemites of Sharifs of Mecca, Kings of Jordan, Syria and Iraq are descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali:[dubious ]

Genealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet,[5] [6] which is contradictory to the previous family tree of Hasan bin Ali in some parts.

[7] [8] [9]

The Alaouites, Kings of Morocco, are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil[dubious ]:

Genealogical tree of the Alouite family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet,[10][11] which is contradictory to the previous family tree of Hasan bin Ali.


Genealogoical chart of the descent from the Prophet of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, and the Senussi dynasty, founders and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil.

Genealogical tree of the Idrisid and Senussi family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet. [11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_dynasties/Les_dynasties_musulmanes/Dynastie_des_Hasanides.htmoriginated
  2. ^ Daftary, Farhad. "ʿAlids." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Brill Online, 2014.
  3. ^ Al-Yasin, Shaykh Radi. "1". Sulh al-Hasan. Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 4. 
  4. ^ Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792
  5. ^ The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
  6. ^ Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London. 
  7. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. 
  8. ^ Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York. 
  9. ^ The Hashemites, 1827-present
  10. ^ "Morocco (Alaoui Dynasty)". Usa-morocco.org. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  11. ^ a b Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1980). Burke's Royal Families of the World: Africa & the Middle East. Burke's Peerage. 

External links[edit]

  • Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Dynastie des Alides, in French):[1]
  • Hasanid branch of the Alides (among which the members of the (royal) Alouite dynasty of Morocco): [2]
  • Idrisid branch of the Alides (among which the members of the (royal) Idrissid dynasty of Morocco): [3]
  • Fatimid branch [4]