Alisher Usmanov

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Alisher Usmanov
Alisher Usmanov 21 October 2009.jpg
Born (1953-09-09) 9 September 1953 (age 61)
Chust, Namangan Province, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union
Residence Moscow, Russia
Nationality Russian
Ethnicity Uzbek
Alma mater Moscow Institute of International Relations
Occupation Investor and Philanthropist
Net worth US$ 18.6 billion (March 2013)[1]
Religion Islam[2][3]

Alisher Burkhanovich Usmanov (Uzbek: Alisher Usmonov, Алишер Бурханович Усмонов) (born 9 September 1953) is an Uzbek-born Russian business magnate. According to March 2014 Forbes website data, the oligarch Usmanov is Russia's richest man, with a fortune estimated at $18.6 billion, and the world's 34th richest person.[1] According to the December 2013 Bloomberg Billionaires Index, he has an estimated net worth of $19.6 billion, making him the 37th richest person in the world.[4] In May 2014, The Sunday Times listed him as the second richest person in the UK with an estimated fortune of £10.65bn.[5]

He built his wealth through metal and mining operations, and investments,[6] and is the majority shareholder of Metalloinvest, a Russian industrial conglomerate, which consolidated in 2006 JSC METALLOINVEST’s assets (the Mikhailovsky GOK and the Ural Steel) with those of Gazmetall JSC (the Lebedinsky GOK and the Oskol Electrometallurgical Plant).[7]

He owns the Kommersant Publishing Houses. He is a co‑owner of Russia's second-largest mobile telephone operator, MegaFon, and co-owner of the Mail.ru group[8], the largest Internet company in the Russian-speaking world,[9] which owns stakes in popular web portals like Odnoklassniki, Vkontakte and others.

Usmanov is the largest investor of Digital Sky Technologies (“DST”) funds, and holds shares in a number of international technology companies.[10]

Usmanov is the president of the FIE, the international governing body of fencing, and he has invested in fencing programs and fencing development around the globe.[11] He is also a shareholder in Arsenal Football Club.[12][13]

In February 2008, his Metalloinvest also became sponsor of Dinamo Moscow, the Russian capital's football team.[14][15] His Metalloinvest group's name replaced the Xerox Corporation's on its players' shirts as part of the $7 million deal.[16]

Brief biography[edit]

Usmanov was born in Uzbekistan in a provincial town of Chust but spent his childhood in the capital Tashkent where his father was a state prosecutor. Planning to pursue a career of a diplomat, he later moved to Moscow and joined Moscow State Institute of International Relations from which he graduated in 1976 with a degree in international law.[17]

He was arrested and convicted on fraud charges in Uzbek SSR in August 1980 and imprisoned for six years of an eight year sentence.[18][19] This conviction was vacated in July 2000 by the Supreme Court of Uzbekistan, when it ruled that "the original conviction was unjust, no crime was ever committed, and that the evidence was fabricated."[18][20]

Usmanov, who is Muslim, married Jewish[21] Irina Viner,[22] a top rhythmic gymnastics coach, in 1992. He attended the Academy of Finance to study banking beginning in 1997.[23] Although Usmanov has no biological children, through his wife Irina Viner, Usmanov has a step-son, who has become a real-estate investor, currently constructing 30 real estate projects.[24]

Usmanov is a close personal friend of Roman Abramovich, who owns Chelsea Football Club (Usmanov has a 30% stake in Arsenal Football club), and the two shared the same circle of friends in Russia (Usmanov even employed Abramovich's first wife Olga to work for his company).[25]

Usmanov owns sprawling Sutton Place, Surrey, the former home of J Paul Getty, in addition to a £48 million London mansion.[26]

Philanthropy[edit]

Charity Fund “Art, Science and Sport” founded by Alisher Usmanov is in close cooperation with London’s Tate Britain. Together they carried out several projects in Russia such as the Turner exhibition in 2009 [27] and the Pre-Raphaelites exhibition in 2013.[28]

On 17 September 2007, Usmanov paid more than £20 million for an art collection owned by the late Russian cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, days before it was to be auctioned by Sotheby's in London. He gave all the artwork to the Russian state, where it is housed in the Konstantinovsky Palace near St. Petersburg. Later that same month he purchased the rights to a large collection of Soviet cartoons, which for fifteen years had been owned by Russian-born actor Oleg Vidov, who emigrated to the United States in 1985. After the deal, valued at $5–10 million, Usmanov donated the cartoon collection to a newly formed Russian children's television channel.[29]

Usmanov is a member of the Board of Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs and the chairman of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs committee on regulatory activity improvement and removal of administrative barriers. He is also one of the founders of the Arts and Sports Charity Foundation and a guarantor of the Charity project “One Thousand Russian cities”.[citation needed]

Usmanov is a Trustee for a range of social, educational and cultural organisations, including the Russian Geographical Society, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, National Research University Higher School of Economics, and European University in St. Petersburg.[30]

According to presidential decree #365 of 17 March 2004, Usmanov was awarded with a Medal of Honor of Russia.[31] In 2011, Usmanov received the Order of Friendship of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2013, he was awarded the Order for Service to the Fatherland IV class in recognition of his services to the state, as well as his community and charitable activities. In the same year, he was awarded a medal ‘For contribution to international cooperation’ by the Foreign Ministry of Russia. In 2014, Usmanov received the Order of Alexander Nevsky for his community and charitable activities.[32]

According to the Sunday Times Giving List 2013, Usmanov was one of the most significant philanthropists, having donated £112.6 million in the preceding twelve months.[33]

Business interests[edit]

USM Holdings and Metalloinvest[edit]

Usmanov has a 60% economic interest and 100% voting rights in USM Holdings, a global conglomerate with main investments in metals and mining industry, telecommunications, technology, and media.[34]

Through USM Holdings and as an individual investor, Usmanov owns diverse interests including stakes in iron ore and steel, media and internet companies. He is the co-owner of Metalloinvest, which he founded along with business partner Vasiliy Anisimov in order to manage his acquisitions in the metal industry.[35] Metalloinvest owns a wide range of Russian metal and mining businesses including Lebedinsky GOK and Mikhailovsky GOK; Oskol Elektrometallurgical Plant and Ural Steel steel mills and a ferrous scrap enterprise – Ural Scrap Company. It also has interests in auxiliary businesses including 21% of Nautilus Minerals, which explores the ocean floor for polymetallic sulphide deposits, 100% of Baikal Mining Company, which owns the license to one of the world’s largest copper deposits, and 5% of Norilsk Nickel, the world’s largest producer of nickel and palladium and one of the leading producers of platinum and copper.[36]

Since 2006, he has acquired stakes in Australia-based mining companies, Medusa, Mt Gibson and Aztec Resources through Gallagher Holdings,[37] now USM Holdings.[38] In 2009 Metalloinvest Holding has sold its 10.37% stake in Australian gold producer Medusa Mining.[39] Usmanov is the largest shareholder in London-listed Nautilus Minerals, which is prospecting undersea gold and copper deposits off Papua New Guinea.

He has also purchased, through Gallagher Holdings, an interest in Australian mining company Strike Resources which is working on an iron ore deposit in Peru.[40]

Mail.ru Group[edit]

In May 2009, Digital Sky Technologies (which later changed its name to "Mail.ru Group"),[41] a company in which he owns a 17.9-percent stake[42], paid $200 million for a 1.96-percent stake in social networking website Facebook.[43]

Mail.ru made notable investments in other international technology companies, including Facebook, Twitter, Groupon, Zynga, AirBnB, ZocDoc, Alibaba and 360buy.[44]

MegaFon[edit]

Usmanov is a co-owner of Russia's second-largest mobile telephone operator, MegaFon. The carrier's subscriber based has grown significantly in the past decade, exceeding 65 million members.

Apple Investment[edit]

In 2013, he was said to have invested $100 million in Apple.[45] He subsequently disposed of his shares in early 2014.

Gazprominvest Holdings[edit]

He is the General Director of Gazprom InvestHoldings, the investment holding subsidiary of Russia's state-owned gas company Gazprom.[46] Usmanov has been credited with the successful architecting and implementation of Gazprom's strategy for recovering assets and shares. In 18 months, between 2002 and 2003, he had effectively secured the state control of Gazprom and reversed a decade of asset stripping.

Kommersant and media firms[edit]

In August 2006, Usmanov began to invest in media. He bought Kommersant, a newspaper formerly owned by Russian oligarch Boris Berezovsky.[6] The deal was finalised at US$200 million. Usmanov also made a $25 million purchase of a 50-percent stake in Russian sports TV channel 7TV in November 2006 and bought 75 percent of Russian TV music channel MUZ-TV for $300 million in June 2007.[47] Usmanov is currently a co-owner of the media holding company UTH, which holds 51% of Disney Russia and 100% of Muz TV and U television channels.[48]

Other[edit]

Usmanov worked as the Deputy General Director of Intercross JSC from 1990 to 1994, and from 1994 to 1998, he headed Interfin Interbank Investment and Finance Company. He also acted as an Adviser to the General Director of Moscow Aviation Industrial Enterprise from 1994 to 1995, and served as the First Deputy Chairman of MAPO-Bank from 1995 to 1997.[49]

Usmanov has a significant ownership in Arsenal F.C.

A340-300E of Alisher Usmanov[50] at Euroairport (2008).

Sport related activities[edit]

Arsenal F.C.[edit]

Usmanov moved into the football arena in August 2007 by acquiring a 14.58-percent stake in the English team Arsenal Football Club. He and his business partner Farhad Moshiri bought the stake in the club owned by former Arsenal vice-chairman David Dein for £75 million.[51] David Dein was appointed as head of their investment vehicle, Red and White Holdings, which became the largest shareholder in the club outside of members of the board of directors.

On 28 September 2007, it was announced that Red and White Holdings had increased its shareholding to 23 percent, making it the second largest shareholder in the club behind Danny Fiszman on 24 percent.[52] On 15 February 2008, he increased it further to over 24 percent, giving him a stake just short of Arsenal non-executive director and major shareholder Danny Fiszman's 24.11 percent.[53] However there was speculation that Usmanov might already be the club's largest shareholder at 24.2 percent, which he later increased to 25 percent on 16 February 2009.[54]

Red and White Holdings confirmed on 28 February 2008 that it was the club's largest shareholder and the company said it "has the necessary funding to increase its stake further [but] it has no current intention to make a full takeover bid for Arsenal for six months."[55] If the stake were to reach 30 percent, Red and White Holdings would have to launch a formal takeover. Usmanov said he had been an Arsenal fan for seven years and he had a great love for Arsenal.[citation needed]

Usmanov's interest precipitated a "lock-down" agreement by the Gunners' board, whereby Chairman Peter Hill-Wood announced that club directors could sell their stakes only to "permitted persons" before April 2009, and had to give fellow board members "first option" on shares until October 2012.[56] However, there was a termination clause in the agreement in October 2010.[clarification needed][56] "The lockdown...makes us bullet-proof," said the then Arsenal managing director Keith Edelman.[57]

American businessman Stanley Kroenke, already a major Arsenal shareholder, increased his stake in the club to just over 62 percent in April 2011 after buying out Fiszman and Lady Nina Bracewell-Smith,[58] making him the majority shareholder. As Kroenke's stake had risen above 30 percent, he was obliged to make an offer to buy out the remainder of Arsenal shares. Usmanov refused to sell, however, and maintained his stake.[59]

Usmanov increased his Arsenal FC share beyond 29 percent in June 2011. Red and White Holdings announced on 20 June 2011 that it had more than 29-percent stake in Arsenal Holdings Plc.[60] This was further increased after Usmanov purchased shares held by Scottish football club Rangers in February 2012.[61] As of October 2013, he owned over 30% of the club.[62]

Usmanov criticized Arsenal's lack of ambition and financial model in an open letter sent to the board on 5 July 2012.[63] This criticism came as consequence of the Dutch football player Robin van Persie's decision not to extend his contract. Usmanov, who remains a major shareholder, states that he has no intention of selling his shares.[63] A month later, he reiterated his view that "the current politics of the club's management" were in part responsible for Arsenal's failure to win trophies.[64]

International Fencing Federation[edit]

A former sabre fencer who fenced for the former Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic,[19] Usmanov invested in the promotion of fencing through his charity fund “For the Future of Fencing”, created in 2004, and was president of the Russian Fencing Federation from 2001 to 2009 and of the European Fencing Confederation from 2005 to 2009.[65] He was elected president of the International Fencing Federation during the 2008 Paris Congress with 66 votes to 61 for incumbent president René Roch. He was re-elected at the 2012 Moscow congress with 127 votes.[66]

The International Charity Fund for the Future of Fencing[edit]

In 2005 The International Charity Fund for the Future of Fencing was founded by Alisher Usmanov. The mission of the Charity Fund is to facilitate the international popularization of fencing and to raise it to a higher level worldwide.[67]

Specialized Endowment Fund to Support Veterans Fencing[edit]

In 2012 Mr. Alisher Usmanov announced that a “Specialized Endowment Fund to Support Veterans Fencing” has been created. The Fund is capitalized with $15,000,000, the amount allocated by the International Charity Fund For the Future of Fencing.[68]

Other sport-related activities[edit]

Usmanov is a member of the Councils of the 2014 Sochi XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Olympian Sportsmen Support Fund.[30]

Controversies[edit]

Kommersant[edit]

On 12 December 2011, following the 2011 Russian protests regarding vote-rigging in parliamentary elections, the weekly Kommersant Vlast magazine ran an unflattering issue on Vladimir Putin titled "Victory of United ballot-stuffers" – a pun on Putin's United Russia party.[69] Usmanov sacked the editor, Maxim Kovalsky, and the head of the publisher's holding company, Andrei Galiyev, saying there had been an "ethical breach" and that the issue "bordered on petty hooliganism".[69] The controversy surrounded an image of a ballot paper from the parliamentary vote with the words "Putin, go fuck yourself" scrawled in red ink. The caption read: "A correctly filled out ballot recognized as invalid." Demyan Kudryavtsev, the head of the Kommersant publishing house, assumed responsibility by resigning, stating in a blog post that the magazine issue had been "in violation of internal procedures, professional journalistic standards and the Russian law".[70]

Nadezhda Azhgihina, executive secretary of the Russian Union of Journalists, was shocked by the incident, calling it "a clear example of censorship from the owner".[69] On 14 December, 60 journalists from the Kommersant newspaper signed an open letter to Usmanov, saying, "We are being compelled to be cowards, which is unworthy and unproductive...We regard [Kovalsky's] dismissal as an act of intimidation aimed at preventing any critical words about Vladimir Putin...We take particular offense at the attempt to present the dismissal of a man for his professional position as a fight for the purity of the Russian language. This is the same kind of fabrication that offended people at the election."[70] Usmanov responded that emotionally, he could "understand the journalists speaking up for sacked top managers" but that "Kommersant Vlast is a respectable, independent, socio-political publication."[70] Mikhail Prokhorov, who had announced his candidacy for the 2012 presidential election, offered to buy Kommersant on the same day, but Usmanov rejected the offer.[70]

Wikipedia[edit]

On 12 November 2012, the British newspaper The Times claimed that London-based PR firm RLM Finsbury had edited Usmanov's article on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia to remove negative information about their client.[71] The PR firm admitted the actions and stated that they had acted on their own, without the authorisation of their client.[72]

The information was said to have been removed in expectation of the stock market listing of MegaFon, which is controlled by Usmanov.[73] PR industry commentators blamed Wikipedia's internal policy and structure on amending inflammatory content, with PRCA director-general Francis Ingham suggesting that the process was "opaque, time-consuming and cumbersome".[74]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Alisher Usmanov". Forbes. 
  2. ^ Catherine Boyle (2012-12-20). "Russia's Richest Man Usmanov: Wait For Next Facebook Surge". CNBC. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  3. ^ Raghavan, Anita (2010-12-03). "The Hard Man of Russia". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  4. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg LP. 
  5. ^ "'Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires". BBC News. May 11, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Alisher Usmanov". Forbes. 2007-08-03. 
  7. ^ Metalloinvest History
  8. ^ "Digital Sky Technologies (“DST”) Changes Name to Mail.ru Group | Business Wire". www.businesswire.com. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  9. ^ Mail.Ru Group: Main. Corp.mail.ru. Retrieved on 2012-12-18.
  10. ^ "USM Holdings - Internet". Usm-group.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  11. ^ Russian Capitalist Wiki contributors, "Alisher Usmanov". Russian Capitalist Wiki. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  12. ^ "Usmanov Gunning for Bigger Arsenal Share". St Petersburg Times. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2007. "Usmanov’s purchase of nearly 15 percent in the club Thursday – the second investment by a Kremlin-friendly oligarch in a leading English Premier League team after Roman Abramovich bought Chelsea in 2003 – received a mixed reaction from the club’s fans and the British media, with some fearing a Russian takeover." 
  13. ^ Arsenal stakeholder aims to boost share, Russia Today TV, TV Novosti, Moscow, 9 January 2007. Retrieved: 4 June 2008.
  14. ^ James Appell (14 August 2008). "Kiev make mincemeat of Spartak". ESPN Soccernet. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  15. ^ Franklin Mossop, Lawrence Booth and Matthew Cunningham (8 May 2003). "Men behaving badly". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  16. ^ Usmanov Funds Dynamo Moscow, Sports, Moscow News Weekly (2008-02-28). Accessed 16 April 2008.[dead link]
  17. ^ "Alisher Usmanov – founder of Metalloinvest". Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  18. ^ a b Weaver, Courtney; Clover, Charles (16 November 2012). "Alisher Usmanov: Uzbek eyes a prize listing". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  19. ^ a b Cobain, Ian (19 November 2007). "Usmanov's responses to Guardian questions". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "Alisher Usmanov - An Apology". Asia Times Online. 2 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  21. ^ Raghavan, Anita (12 March 2010). "The Hard Man of Russia". Forbes. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  22. ^ "Alisher Usmanov and Irina Viner : The story of the Muslim Billionaire and his Jewish wife". Jewish Business News. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  23. ^ Arsenal's oligarch takes on his friend Abramovich, Daily Mail (2007-08-31). Retrieved 27 September 2007
  24. ^ Наследник Алишера Усманова застроит «Новую Москву» 22.03.2012, Редакция ГдеЭтотДом.РУ
  25. ^ Arsenal's oligarch takes on his friend Abramovich Daily Mail
  26. ^ Sheldrick, Giles. "Russians, rulers of the Rich List". Daily Express. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  27. ^ Turner Exhibition Opens in Russia
  28. ^ Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde
  29. ^ BBC (17 September 2007). "Billionaire buys entire auction". BBC News. 
  30. ^ a b ALISHER USMANOV
  31. ^ "Presidential decree #365 of 17 March 2004". Retrieved 3 February 2014.  {{Country data {{{1}}} | flaglink/core | variant = | size = | name = | altlink = national rugby union team | altvar = rugby union }}
  32. ^ Alisher Usmanov
  33. ^ A £2bn fortune for good causes
  34. ^ USM Holdings Limited
  35. ^ The world's richest people 2006, Vasiliy Anisimov, Forbes retrieved 29 September 2007
  36. ^ USM Holdings - Steel & Mining
  37. ^ Russian steel baron snaps up Medusa stake, West Australian (2007-06-28). Retrieved 26 September 2007
  38. ^ Usmanov and partners join assets in USM Holdings
  39. ^ http://metalloinvest.com/upload/iblock/9e4/9e4e2a7d831538840a343bb35377c649.pdf
  40. ^ Behrmann, Elisabeth (2008-07-28). "Strike Resources places $103m shares with Gallagher Holdings". The Australian. Archived from the original on 2008-08-06. 
  41. ^ Digital Sky Technologies (“DST”) Changes Name to Mail.ru Group. Business Wire (2010-09-16). Retrieved on 2012-12-18.
  42. ^ "Page Not Found | Reuters India". in.reuters.com. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  43. ^ http://www.forbes.com/2009/05/27/facebook-russian-billionaire-markets-faces-technology.html
  44. ^ Russian Tech Giant Cashes In on Facebook’s Recovery
  45. ^ Fedorinova, Yuliya. "Billionaire Usmanov Bets on Apple's Growth After Facebook". Bloomberg (Bloomberg). Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  46. ^ "Hard man of Russia who made his pile through steel". The Guardian (London). 31 August 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  47. ^ Metals Mogul Buys Music TV Channel, Kommersant (2007-06-25). Retrieved 27 September 2007
  48. ^ USM Holding Media
  49. ^ "USM Holdings - Company - Alisher Usmanov". Usm-group.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  50. ^ Cora (2013-11-07). "Russian Billionaire Alisher Usmanov’s Immense Airbus A340". Luxedb.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  51. ^ "Russian buys Dein's Arsenal stake". BBC News. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 30 August 2007. 
  52. ^ "Usmanov increases stake". SkySports. 2007-09-28. Retrieved 3 October 2007. 
  53. ^ "Alisher Usmanov increases Arsenal stake". Telegraph (London). 2008-02-15. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  54. ^ Nakrani, Sachin (2008-02-23). "Arsenal warn Usmanov to beware of derailing the club's title bid". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  55. ^ "Usmanov 'no plans on Arsenal bid'". BBC. 2008-02-28. 
  56. ^ a b "Kroenke content with Gunners 'partnership'". ESPN Soccernet. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  57. ^ Usmanov 'no plans on Arsenal bid. BBC News (2008-02-28).
  58. ^ "US businessman Stan Kroenke agrees bid to buy Arsenal". BBC News. 2011-04-11. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  59. ^ "'Fan' Alisher Usmanov vows not to sell stake in Arsenal". BBC News. 2011-04-13. 
  60. ^ "Alisher Usmanov increases Arsenal stake beyond 29%". BBC News. 21 June 2011. 
  61. ^ Murray, Ewan (2012-02-24). "Rangers' Ally McCoist angry that historic shares in Arsenal were sold". The Guardian (London). 
  62. ^ "Red & White Share Position in Arsenal Holdings PLC - London Stock Exchange". www.londonstockexchange.com. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  63. ^ a b "Alisher Usmanov's letter to the Arsenal board". BBC News. 2012-07-05. Retrieved 7 July 2012. "You can try and put a good face on a bad game for as long as you want, pontificating about the merits of this model, but it will not hide the obvious fact that it just does not allow our great manager to fully realise his managerial talent and deliver success for the fans who are paying the highest prices in the land...Yet again we are faced with losing our true marquee player at the club because we cannot assure him of the future direction and give confidence that we can win trophies." 
  64. ^ "Usmanov launches new attack on Arsenal board". Goal.com. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  65. ^ "Hall of Fame: Usmanov, Alisher Burkhanovich". FIE. 
  66. ^ Yuliya Fedorinova (8 December 2012). "Billionaire Usmanov Re-Elected Head of World Fencing Federation". Bloomberg. 
  67. ^ The International Charity Fund for the Future of Fencing
  68. ^ Specialized Endowment Fund to Support Veterans Fencing
  69. ^ a b c Russia media managers fired "over anti-Putin pictures", BBC (2011-12-13)
  70. ^ a b c d Russian journalists condemn 'gag' after Putin story, BBC (2011-12-14)
  71. ^ Kenber, Billy and Ahmed, Murad (2012-11-12). "PR firm of Oligarch Alisher Usmanov cleaned up his entry in Wikipedia". The Times. 
  72. ^ Sparkes, Matthew (2012-11-12). "Finsbury edited Alisher Usmanov's Wikipedia page". London: The Telegraph. 
  73. ^ "Report: Usmanov PR Firm Tweaked Wikipedia Entry". The Moscow Times. 2012-11-13. 
  74. ^ Cartmell, Matt (2012-11-12). "PR industry blames 'cumbersome' Wikipedia for Finsbury editing issue". PRWeek. 

External links[edit]