Alisma plantago-aquatica

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European water-plantain
Common water-plantain
Mad-dog weed
AlismaPlant1.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Alismataceae
Genus: Alisma
Species: A. plantago-aquatica
Binomial name
Alisma plantago-aquatica
L., 1753

Alisma plantago-aquatica, also known as European water-plantain, common water-plantain or mad-dog weed, is a perennial flowering plant widespread across most of Europe and Asia from Portugal and Morocco to Japan, Kamchatka and Vietnam. It is also regarded as native in northern and central Africa as far south as Tanzania. It is reportedly naturalized in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington State and Connecticut.[2][3][4] Some sources maintain that the species is widespread across North America, but these reports appear to have been based on misidentified specimens.[5] It is found on mud or in fresh waters.

Description[edit]

AlismaPlantagoBlossom.jpg

Alisma plantago-aquatica is a hairless plant that grows in shallow water, consists of a fibrous root, several basal long stemmed leaves 15–30 cm long, and a triangular stem up to 1 m tall. It has branched inflorescence bearing numerous small flowers, 1 cm across, with three round or slightly jagged, white or pale purple petals. The flowers open in the afternoon. There are 3 blunt green sepals, and 6 stamens per flower. The carpels often exist as a flat single whorl. It flowers from June until August.[6]

The word alisma is said to be a word of Celtic origin meaning "water", a reference to the habitat in which it grows. Early botanists named it after the Plantago because of the similarity of their leaves.[7]

Similar species[edit]

Narrow leaved water plantain Alisma lanceolatum differs only in that the leaf tips are acuminate and shape is narrow lanceolate.

Traditional uses[edit]

According to Flora of the U.S.S.R. (1934, translated 1968), “A powder prepared from dried roots is used in popular medicine as a cure for rabies and crushed leaves are used against mammary congestion; fresh leaves are employed in homeopathy. [...] Since this species is often confounded or identified with others of the genus, the reported data may also refer to [Alisma orientale or Alisma lanceolatum].”[8] Indeed, Alisma plantago-aquatica is also known as mad-dog weed,[9] as if it could be used to cure rabies. Do not confuse this with Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap), which is also sometimes called mad-dog weed.

Alisma orientale is sometimes treated as a variety of this species (Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale).[10][11] The rhizomes of A. orientale have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine, ze xie.[12] However, it may have serious side effects or even toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity.[13]

Research[edit]

In vitro and animal studies indicate that extracts of Alisma plantago-aquatica or its isolated chemical constituents may have biological activities including:

Chemistry[edit]

Chemical constituents of Rhizoma Alismatis—rhizomes of Alisma orientale (syn. Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale) as a traditional Chinese medicine—include alisol A 24-acetate and alisol B 23-acetate.[18] The content of these two compounds are significantly different in Rhizoma Alismatis of different areas.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lansdown, R.V. (2014). "Alisma plantago-aquatica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Biota of North America Program
  4. ^ Flora of China, v 23 p 87, 泽泻 ze xie, Alisma plantago-aquatica
  5. ^ Björkquist, I. 1968. Studies in Alisma L. II. Chromosome studies, crossing experiments and taxonomy. Opera Botanica 19: 1-138.
  6. ^ Flora of North America v 22, Alisma plantago-aquatica
  7. ^ Rose, Francis (2006). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 483–484. ISBN 978-0-7232-5175-0. 
  8. ^ Flora of the U.S.S.R 1. 1968. pp. 220–1. Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Historical Common Names of Great Plains Plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica L.". Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Alisma orientale information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  12. ^ "SCHEDULE 1 Chinese Herbal Medicines". Chinese Medicine Bill. Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved June 3, 2012. Rhizoma Alismatis (澤瀉) Tuber of Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. 
  13. ^ YUEN, M.-F., TAM, S., FUNG, J., WONG, D. K.-H., WONG, B. C.-Y. and LAI, C.-L. (October 2006). "Traditional Chinese medicine causing hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a 1-year prospective study". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 24 (8): 1179–86. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03111.x. PMID 17014576. Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  14. ^ Rau O., Wurglics M., Dingermann Th., Abdel-Tawab M., Schubert-Zsilavecz M, "Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor." Pharmazie 2006 61:11 (952-956)
  15. ^ Jeong C.S., Suh I.O., Hyun J.E., Lee E.B. "Screening of hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plant extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats", Natural Product Sciences 2003 9:2 (87-90)
  16. ^ Kubo, Michinori; Mattsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki (May 1997). "Studies on Alismatis rhizoma. Anti-allergic Effects of Methanol Extract and Six Terpene Components from Alismatis rhizoma (Dried Rhizome of Alisma orientale)" (PDF). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 20 (5): 511–6. doi:10.1248/bpb.20.511. PMID 9178931. Retrieved June 3, 2012. 
  17. ^ Lee, JH; Kwon, OS; Jin, HG; Woo, ER; Kim, YS; Kim, HP (2012). "The Rhizomes of Alisma orientale and Alisol Derivatives Inhibit Allergic Response and Experimental Atopic Dermatitis". Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 35 (9): 1581–7. PMID 22975512. 
  18. ^ http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YBQJ201010029.htm

External links[edit]

Media related to Alisma plantago-aquatica at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Alisma plantago-aquatica at Wikispecies