Alkaline battery

Alkaline batteries

Alkaline batteries are a type of primary batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2). A rechargeable alkaline battery allows reuse of specially designed cells.

Compared with zinc-carbon batteries of the Leclanché or zinc chloride types, alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and longer shelf-life, with the same voltage. Button cell silver-oxide batteries have higher energy density and capacity but also higher cost than similar-size alkaline cells.

The alkaline battery gets its name because it has an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide, instead of the acidic ammonium chloride or zinc chloride electrolyte of the zinc-carbon batteries. Other battery systems also use alkaline electrolytes, but they use different active materials for the electrodes.

Alkaline batteries account for 80% of manufactured batteries in the US and over 10 billion individual units produced worldwide. In Japan alkaline batteries account for 46% of all primary battery sales. In Switzerland alkaline batteries account for 68%, in the UK 60% and in the EU 47% of all battery sales including secondary types.[1][2][3][4][5]

Alkaline batteries are used in many household items such as MP3 players, CD players, digital cameras, pagers, toys, lights, and radios, to name a few.

History

Batteries with alkaline (rather than acid) electrolyte were first developed by Waldemar Jungner in 1899, and, working independently, Thomas Edison in 1901.[6][7]

The alkaline dry battery using the zinc/manganese dioxide chemistry was invented by Canadian engineer Lewis Urry in the 1950s while working for Union Carbide's Eveready Battery division in Cleveland, OH, building on earlier work by Edison.[8] On October 9, 1957, Urry, Karl Kordesch, and P.A. Marsal filed US patent (2,960,558) for the alkaline battery. It was granted in 1960 and was assigned to the Union Carbide Corporation.[9]

When introduced in the late 1960s, alkaline batteries contained a small amount of toxic mercury amalgam to control side reactions at the zinc cathode. With mercury content reduced by law and improvements in the purity and consistency of materials, manufacturers have reduced the mercury content in modern cells.[10]

Chemistry

In an alkaline battery, the anode (negative terminal) is made of zinc powder, which gives more custom area for increased current, and the cathode (positive terminal) is composed of manganese dioxide. The alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide is consumed during discharge.

Section through an alkaline battery.

The half-reactions are:[11]

Zn(s) + 2OH(aq) → ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e [e° = -1.28 V]
2MnO2(s) + H2O(l) + 2e → Mn2O3(s) + 2OH(aq) [e° = +0.15 V]

Overall reaction:

$\mathrm{Zn_{(s)} + 2MnO_{2(s)} \leftrightharpoons Mn_2O_{3(s)} + ZnO_{(s)}}$ [e° = 1.43 V]

Capacity

Several sizes of button and coin cells. Some are alkaline and others are silver oxide. Two 9v batteries were added as a size comparison. Enlarge to see the size code markings.

Capacity of an alkaline battery is greater than an equal size Leclanché cell or zinc-chloride cell because the manganese dioxide is purer and denser, and space taken up by internal components such as electrodes is less. An alkaline cell can provide between three and five times capacity.[12]

The capacity of an alkaline battery is strongly dependent on the load. An AA-sized alkaline battery might have an effective capacity of 3000 mAh at low drain, but at a load of 1 ampere, which is common for digital cameras, the capacity could be as little as 700 mAh.[13] The voltage of the battery declines steadily during use, so the total usable capacity depends on the cut-off voltage of the application. Unlike Leclanche cells, the alkaline cell delivers about as much capacity on intermittent or continuous light loads. On a heavy load, capacity is reduced on continuous discharge compared with intermittent discharge, but the reduction is less than for Leclanche cells.

Voltage

The nominal voltage of a fresh alkaline cell is 1.5 V. Multiple voltages may be achieved with series of cells. The effective zero-load voltage of a non discharged alkaline battery varies from 1.50 to 1.65 V, depending on the purity of the manganese dioxide used and the contents of zinc oxide in the electrolyte.[citation needed] The average voltage under load depends on discharge and varies from 1.1 to 1.3 V. The fully discharged cell has a remaining voltage in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 V.

Current

The amount of current an alkaline battery can deliver is roughly proportional to its physical size. This is a result of decreasing internal resistance as the internal surface area of the cell increases. A general rule of thumb is that an AA alkaline battery can deliver 700 mA without any significant heating. Larger cells, such as C and D cells, can deliver more current. Applications requiring currents of several amperes, such as powerful flashlights and portable stereos, will require D-sized cells to handle the increased load.

Construction

Alkaline batteries are manufactured in standardized cylindrical forms interchangeable with zinc-carbon batteries, and in button forms. Several individual cells may be interconnected to form a true "battery", such as those sold for use with flashlights and the 9 volt transistor-radio battery.[14]

A cylindrical cell is contained in a drawn steel can, which is the cathode connection. The cathode mixture is a compressed paste of manganese dioxide with carbon powder added for increased conductivity. The paste may be pressed into the can or deposited as pre-molded rings. The hollow center of the cathode is lined with a separator, which prevents mixing of the anode and cathode materials and short-circuiting of the cell. The separator is made of a non-woven layer of cellulose or a synthetic polymer. The separator must conduct ions and remain stable in the highly alkaline electrolyte solution.

The anode is composed of a dispersion of zinc powder in a gel containing the potassium hydroxide electrolyte. To prevent gassing of the cell at the end of its life, more manganese dioxide is used than required to react with all the zinc.

When describing standard AAA, AA, C, sub-C and D size cells, the anode is connected to the flat end while the cathode is connected to the end with the raised button.

Recharging of alkaline batteries

Some alkaline batteries are designed to be recharged (see rechargeable alkaline battery), but most are not. Attempts to recharge may cause rupture, or the leaking of hazardous liquids which will corrode the equipment.

Leaks

Leaked alkaline battery

Alkaline batteries are prone to leaking potassium hydroxide, a caustic agent that can cause respiratory, eye and skin irritation.[note 1] This can be reduced by not attempting to recharge disposable alkaline cells, not mixing different battery types in the same device, replacing all of the batteries at the same time, storing in a dry place, and removing batteries for storage of devices.

All batteries gradually self-discharge (whether installed in a device or not) and dead batteries will eventually leak. Extremely high temperatures can also cause batteries to rupture and leak (such as in a car during summer).

The reason for leaks is that as batteries discharge — either through usage or gradual self-discharge — the chemistry of the cells changes and some hydrogen gas is generated. This out-gassing increases pressure in the battery. Eventually, the excess pressure either ruptures the insulating seals at the end of the battery, or the outer metal canister, or both. In addition, as the battery ages, its steel outer canister may gradually corrode or rust, which can further contribute to containment failure.

Once a leak has formed due to corrosion of the outer steel shell, potassium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air to form a feathery crystalline structure of potassium carbonate that grows and spreads out from the battery over time, following along metal electrodes to circuit boards where it commences oxidation of copper tracks and other components, leading to permanent circuitry damage.

The leaking crystalline growths can also emerge from seams around battery covers to form a furry coating outside the device, that corrodes any objects in contact with the leaking device.

Disposal

With the reduction in mercury in 1996, alkaline batteries are allowed to be disposed of as regular domestic waste in some locations. However, older alkaline batteries with mercury, and the remaining other heavy metals and corrosive chemicals in all batteries (new and old) still present problems for disposal especially landfills.[15][16][17][18] There is also the issue of simplifying the disposal of batteries to exclude them all so that the most toxic will be diverted from general waste streams.

Disposal varies by jurisdiction. For example the state of California considers all batteries as hazardous waste when discarded, and has banned the disposal of batteries with other domestic waste.[19] In Europe, battery disposal is controlled by the WEEE and Battery Directive regulations, and as such alkaline batteries must not be thrown in with domestic waste. In the EU, most stores that sell batteries are required by law to accept old batteries for recycling.

Recycling

Alkaline batteries are not valuable materials, so disposal has a net cost to the party disposing of the material.

In the US, one company shreds and separates the battery case metals, manganese and zinc.[20] Another company mixes batteries in as a feedstock in steel making furnaces, to make low-grade steel such as rebar; the zinc fumes are recovered separately.[6]

Notes

1. ^ This alkali particularly attacks aluminium, a common material for flashlights, which can be damaged by leaking alkaline batteries.

References

1. ^ [1] Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life - EBPA-EU
2. ^ [2] Monthly battery sales statistics - MoETI - March 2011
3. ^ [3] INOBAT 2008 statistics.
4. ^ [4] Battery Waste Management - 2006 DEFRA
5. ^ [5] EPBA statistics - 2000
6. ^ History of battery invention and development, allaboutbatteries.com (accessed Dec. 4, 2011)
7. ^ IEEE, Edison's Alkaline Battery, IEEE Global History Network (accessed Dec. 4, 2011)
8. ^ Gabriel Baird, "Greater Cleveland Innovations: Thomas Edison provided Lew Urry spark of idea for better alkaline battery," Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 03, 2011 (web version; accessed Dec. 4, 2011)
9. ^ US Patent 2960558 (English)
10. ^ David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook Of Batteries 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8 page 10.2
11. ^ Battery FAQ at www.powerstream.com
12. ^ Reddy, page 10.14
13. ^ Alkaline Drain Chart at greenbatteries.com
14. ^ Reedy, pages 10.6 through 10.12 ,
15. ^ Battery Recycling and Disposal Guide at ehso.com
16. ^ Household battery fact sheet at dec.ny.gov
17. ^ Environmental Services Department. "Battery Recycling". City of San Diego. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
18. ^ Raw Materials Company. "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 5 September 2012.
19. ^ "Batteries". Waste Prevention Information Exchange. California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle). Retrieved 5 September 2012.
20. ^ Toxco, Inc. "About Battery Recycling". Retrieved 5 September 2012.