All fourths tuning

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All fourths
The consecutive open notes of all-fourths tuning are spaced apart by five semitones on the chromatic circle, which lists the twelve notes of the octave.
Basic information
Aliases Perfect-fourths tuning
Interval Perfect fourth
Semitones 5
Example(s) E-A-D-G-C-F
Advanced information
Other instruments Bass guitar
Repetition No
Advantages Closely approximates standard tuning
Disadvantages Difficult to play conventional music
Left-handed tuning All-fifths tuning
Associated musician
Guitarist Stanley Jordan
Alex Hutchings
Stanley Jordan plays guitar.
Jazz musician Stanley Jordan stated that all-fourths tuning "simplifies the fingerboard, making it logical".
Regular tunings (semitones)
Trivial (0)
Minor thirds (3)
Major thirds (4)
All fourths (5)
Augmented fourths (6)
New standard (7, 3)
All fifths (7)
Minor sixths (8)
Guitar tunings

Among alternative tunings for the guitar, all-fourths tuning is a regular tuning.[1] In contrast, the standard tuning has one irregularity—a major third between the third and second strings—while having perfect fourths between the other successive strings.[2][3] The standard tuning's irregular major-third is replaced by a perfect fourth in all-fourths tuning, which has the open notes

E-A-D-G-C-F.[1][4]

Among regular tunings, this all-fourths tuning best approximates the standard tuning.[5]

An open D-chord (A,D,A,D,F) in all-fourths tuning: The D-major chord (D, F, A) drop one (A, D, F) repeating A and D in a lower octave. About this sound Play .
In all-fourths and standard tuning, the C7 chord has notes on frets 3-8; Covering six frets is difficult, and so C7 is rarely played but "alternative voicing" are substituted instead.

In all guitar tunings, the higher-octave version of a chord can be found by translating a chord by twelve frets higher along the fretboard.[6] In every regular tuning, for example in all-fourths tuning, chords and intervals can be moved also diagonally. For all-fourths tuning, all twelve major chords (in the first or open positions) are generated by two chords, the open F major chord and the D major chord. The regularity of chord-patterns reduces the number of finger positions that need to be memorized.[1] Jazz musician Stanley Jordan plays guitar in all-fourths tuning; he has stated that all-fourths tuning "simplifies the fingerboard, making it logical".[7]

However, seventh chords require severe hand-stretching in not only standard tuning,[8] but also all-fourths tuning. For example, the C7 chord has notes on frets 3-8 in standard tuning (and all-fourths tuning). Consequently, seventh chords are rarely played in standard tuning.[8] In their stead, standard-tuning and all-fourths tuning use "alternatively voiced" chords, which have the same notes but in different order (and perhaps in a different octave). An illustration shows a C7 chord (in standard tuning), which would be extremely difficult to play, and an "alternatively voiced" C7.[9] In comparison, all seventh-chords can be played on three consecutive frets in major-thirds tuning.[10]

Among all regular tunings, all-fourths tuning E-A-D-G-C-F is the best approximation of standard tuning, which is more popular. An advantage of standard tuning is that it has many six-string chords, unlike all-fourths tuning.[5] All-fourths tuning is traditionally used for the bass guitar;[5] it is also used for the bajo sexto.[11]

Relation with all-fifths tuning[edit]

The consecutive open notes of all-fifths tuning are spaced apart by seven semitones, reversing the ordering of all-fourths tuning.

All-fourths tuning is closely related to all-fifths tuning. All-fourths tuning is based on the perfect fourth (five semitones), and all-fifths tuning is based on the perfect fifth (seven semitones). These perfect-fourth and perfect-fifth intervals are termed "inverse" intervals in music theory, and the chords of all-fourth and all-fifths are paired as inverted chords. Consequently, chord charts for all-fifths tunings may be used for left-handed all-fourths tuning.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sethares (2001, p. 52):

    Sethares, Bill (2001). "Regular tunings". Alternate tuning guide (pdf). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin; Department of Electrical Engineering. pp. 52–67. 2010 Alternate tuning guide, including a revised chapter on regular tunings. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 

  2. ^ Nash (1997)
  3. ^ Denyer (, pp. 158–159)
  4. ^ Weissman (2006, p. 68)
  5. ^ a b c Sethares (2001, p. 58)
  6. ^ Sethares (2001, p. 9)
  7. ^ Ferguson (1986, p. 76):
    Ferguson, Jim (1986). "Stanley Jordan". In Casabona, Helen; Belew, Adrian. New directions in modern guitar. Guitar Player basic library. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation. pp. 68–76. ISBN 0881884235; ISBN 9780881884234. 
  8. ^ a b Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale: Diatonic seventh chords, p. 37):

    Kolb, Tom (2005). Music theory. Hal Leonard Guitar Method. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 1–104. ISBN 0-634-06651-X. 

  9. ^ The alternative voicing of the C7 chord follows the first seventh-chord diagram of Denyer (1992, "The harmonic guitarist: Seventh chords: The dominant seventh chords", p. 127)
  10. ^ Griewank (2010, p. 2)
  11. ^ http://stringedinstrumentdatabase.110mb.com/b.htm
  12. ^ Sethares (2001, p. 53)

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]