Allan V. Cox
|Allan Verne Cox|
December 17, 1926|
Santa Ana, California
Palo Alto, California
|Fields||geomagnetism, rock magnetism|
|Institutions||US Geological Survey 1959–1962; Stanford University 1967–1987|
|Alma mater||University of California Berkeley|
|Doctoral advisor||John Verhoogen|
|Known for||geomagnetic reversals|
|Notable awards||Arthur L. Day Medal, John Adam Fleming Medal, Vetlesen Prize|
Allan Verne Cox (December 17, 1926 – January 27, 1987) was an American geophysicist. His work on dating geomagnetic reversals, with Richard Doell and Brent Dalrymple, made a major contribution to the theory of plate tectonics. Allan Cox won numerous awards, including the prestigious Vetlesen Prize, and was the president of the American Geophysical Union. He was the author of two books on plate tectonics and over a hundred scientific papers. On January 27, 1987, Cox killed himself in a bicycle accident.
Cox began studying chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. However, after a single quarter he left school and spent three years in the United States Merchant Marine. He returned to Berkeley, but had so little interest in chemistry that his grades were too low to avoid being drafted into the United States Army. When he returned, he switched his major to geology. His research career in geology began in 1950 when he took a position as a field assistant to Clyde Wahrhaftig studying glaciation in the Alaska Range; the pair later had a long romantic relationship. For his graduate research at the University of California, Berkeley, Cox concentrated on rock magnetism with John Verhoogen as his supervisor. Verhoogen was one of the few geologists of the time who took the hypothesis of continental drift seriously. His stance made a deep impression on Cox.
After receiving his Ph.D. in 1959, Cox joined the United States Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. There he collaborated with another geophysicist, Richard Doell, on rock magnetism. The two were particularly interested in geomagnetic reversals. At the time, very little was known about the timing of reversals. The rock specimens they collected were too young (a few millions of years) to date accurately until the potassium-argon dating method was developed. Cox and Doell arranged for the USGS to hire Brent Dalrymple, a graduate from Berkeley with expertise in this method. The three succeeded in creating the first geomagnetic polarity time scale. This work made possible the first test, by Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews, of the seafloor spreading hypothesis.
Cox was hired as a professor at Stanford University in 1967. He became Dean of the School of Earth Sciences in 1979 and demonstrated a talent for administration that was widely acknowledged by his colleagues.
Cox died in a bicycle accident, colliding with a large redwood tree after falling off a cliff on Tunitas Creek road, in the mountains Northwest of Stanford University. The San Mateo County coroner concluded that Cox's death was a suicide. Cox was normally very safety conscious and had exceptionally not worn a helmet on that day. Cox's death came five days after he learned he was going to be charged with child molestation. Cox allegedly had molested the mentally disturbed son of one of his graduate students since the boy was fourteen years old. Cox had told the father of the molested child that he would kill himself if the allegations were reported to the police.
Cox was elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. In 1969 the American Geophysical Union awarded him the John Adam Fleming medal for research in geomagnetism;. In 1970 he was awarded the prestigious Vetlesen Prize, along with G. Brent Dalrymple, Richard Doell and S. Keith Runcorn, for contributions to geology and geophysics. In 1976 the Geological Society of America awarded him the Arthur L. Day Medal for the application of physics and chemistry to the solution of geologic problems. He was the president of the American Geophysical Union from 1978 to 1980. In 1984 the United States National Academy of Sciences awarded him the Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship.
After his death, a number of memorials to him were created. The American Geophysical Union had the annual Allan Cox Lecture from 1998 to 2001; this lecture was replaced by the Edward Bullard lecture. The Geological Society of America (Geophysics Division) selects a student each year for the Allan V. Cox Student Research Award; and Stanford University awards the Allan Cox Medal for Faculty Excellence Fostering Undergraduate Research.
Selected scientific articles
- Cox, Allan V.; Doell, R. R. (1960). "Review of paleomagnetism". Geological Society of America Bulletin 71: 645–768. Bibcode:1960GSAB...71..645C. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1960)71[645:ROP]2.0.CO;2.
- Cox, Allan V.; Doell, R. R. (1962). "Magnetic properties of basalt in hole EM 7, Mohole Project". Journal of Geophysical Research 67: 3997–4004. Bibcode:1962JGR....67.3997C. doi:10.1029/JZ067i010p03997.
- Doell, R. R.; Cox, Allan V. (1963). "The accuracy of the paleomagnetic method as evaluated from historic Hawaiian lava flows". Journal of Geophysical Research 68: 1997–2009. Bibcode:1963JGR....68.1997D. doi:10.1029/JZ068i007p01997.
- Cox, Allan V.; Dalrymple, G. B.; Doell, R. R. and (1963). "Geomagnetic polarity epochs and Pleistocene geochronometry". Nature 198: 1049–1051. Bibcode:1963Natur.198.1049C. doi:10.1038/1981049a0.
- Cox, Allan V.; Doell, R. R. (1964). "Long period variations of the geomagnetic field". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 54B: 2243–70.
- Cox, Allan V.; Doell, R. R. and; Dalrymple, G. B. (1964). "Reversals of the earth's magnetic field—Recent paleomagnetic + geochronological data provide information on time + frequency of field reversals". Science 144: 1537–1543. Bibcode:1964Sci...144.1537C. doi:10.1126/science.144.3626.1537.
- Cox, Allan V.; Doell, R. R.; Dalrymple, G. B. and (1965). "Potassium-argon age and paleomagnetism of the Bishop tuff, California". Geological Society of America Bulletin 76: 665–673.
- Cox, Allan V.; Dalrymple, G. B. (1967). "Statistical analysis of geomagnetic reversal data and the precision of potassium-argon dating". Journal of Geophysical Research 72: 2603–2614. Bibcode:1967JGR....72.2603C. doi:10.1029/JZ072i010p02603.
- Cox, Allan V.; Dalrymple, G. B. and; Doell, R. R. (1967). "Reversals of the earth's magnetic field". Scientific American 216: 44–54. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0267-44.
- Cox, Allan V. (1968). "Lengths of geomagnetic polarity intervals.". Journal of Geophysical Research 73: 3247–3260. Bibcode:1968JGR....73.3247C. doi:10.1029/JB073i010p03247.
- Cox, A. (1968). "Latitude dependence of the angular dispersion of the geomagnetic field". Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 20: 253–269. Bibcode:1970GeoJI..20..253C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1970.tb06069.x.
- Cox, Allan V. (1969). "Geomagnetic reversals". Science 163: 237–2345. Bibcode:1969Sci...163..237C. doi:10.1126/science.163.3864.237.
- Marshall, Monte; Cox, Allan (1972). "Magnetic changes in pillow basalt due to sea floor weathering". Journal of Geophysical Research 77: 6459–6469. Bibcode:1972JGR....77.6459M. doi:10.1029/JB077i032p06459.
- Hillhouse, J.; Cox, Allan V. (1976). "Brunhes-Matuyama polarity transition". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 29: 51–64. Bibcode:1976E&PSL..29...51H. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(76)90025-X.
- Cox, Allan V.; Gordon, R. G. (1984). "Paleolatitudes determined from paleomagnetic data from vertical cores". Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 22: 47–72. Bibcode:1984RvGSP..22...47C. doi:10.1029/RG022i001p00047.
- "Clyde Wahrhaftig & Allan Cox: Geologists and educators". Gay, Lesbian Or Bisexual Employees Club at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Queer Scientists of Historical Note". National Organization of Gay and Lesbian Scientists and Technical Professionals. 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Krauskopf 2011
- Bill Workman (March 13, 1987). "Stanford Dean killed himself, coroner rules". San Francisco Chronicle. "The San Mateo County coroner has ruled that Stanford University dean Allan Cox, a world-renowned expert in earthquake studies, committed suicide when he smashed his bicycle into a tree in January. Coroner Paul Jensen said yesterday he has 'conclusive evidence' that Cox, 60, a suspect in a sexual molestation case at the time, killed himself by deliberately riding his bike down a hill and off the road at high speed."
- Lisa Lapin (January 30, 1987). "Was death a suicide born of sex probe". San Jose Mercury News. p. 1A. "'San Mateo County sheriff's detectives say Cox committed suicide when he struck the redwood head-on during a bicycle ride Tuesday morning, five days after he learned he was to be charged with child molestation. [para break] Cox, the 60-year-old dean of the Stanford earth sciences department, was being investigated on suspicion of repeatedly molesting a friend's teen-age son, according to Lt. Richard McKillip. McKillip said detectives told Cox on Friday that he was under investigation . . .A childless bachelor, he was especially close to the victim's parents and their mentally disturbed 19-year-old son.'"
- AGU 2011
- Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 2011
- GSA 2011
- AGU 1999
- AGU Geomagnetism & Paleomagnetism 2011
- GSA Geophysics Division 2009
- Stanford 2011
- American Geophysical Union (1999). "AGU celebrates 80 years of leadership (1919-1999)" (pdf). AGU History. Retrieved September 2011.
- "Awards & Honors". Geomagnetism & Paleomagnetism section of the American Geophysical Union. Retrieved September 2011.
- American Geophysical Union (2011). "John Adam Fleming Medal". Union Medals & Awards. Retrieved September 2011.
- Cox, Allan (1973). Plate tectonics and geomagnetic reversals. W. H. Freeman. pp. 138–145, 222–228. ISBN 0-7167-0258-4.
- Geological Society of America. "Past Awards & Recipients - Arthur L. Day Medal". GSA Awards. Retrieved September 2011.
- "Allan V. Cox Student Research Award". GSA Geophysics Division. Retrieved September 2011.
- Glen, William (1982). The Road to Jaramillo: Critical Years of the Revolution in Earth Science. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1119-4.
- Krauskopf, Konrad B. (2011). "Allan V. Cox:December 17, 1926 — January 27, 1987". National Academy of Sciences biographical memoirs. National Academies Press. Retrieved September 2011.
- Stanford University (2011). "Allan Cox Medal for Faculty Excellence Fostering Undergraduate Research".