Allegany Indian Reservation
Allegany Reservation (Uhì·yaʼ in Tuscarora) is an American Indian reservation in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The majority of the population within the Reservation boundaries is Euro-Americans living on land rented from the Senaca. The population outside of the rented towns was 1,020 at the 2010 census. The reservation's Native American population is primarily members of the Seneca of the Iroquois, but a smaller number of Cayuga, another Iroquois tribe, also reside there. Historically, the reservation's land was home to the Wenrohronon, whom the Senecas eliminated during the Beaver Wars in 1638.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Indian reservation has a total area of 43.7 mi² (113.1 km²). 36.4 mi² (94.2 km²) of it is land and 7.3 mi² (18.8 km²) of it (16.65%) is water.
The reservation borders both banks of the Allegheny River and is within several of the towns in the south part of the county (South Valley, Cold Spring, Salamanca, Great Valley, Red House, Carrollton, and Allegany). The City of Salamanca, with the exception of a northern spur along U.S. Route 219, is also within the reservation.
The governmental headquarters for the Allegany Reservation are located in a small community known as Jimerson Town, an unincorporated hamlet located west of Salamanca on a stretch of dead-end road that formerly was part of New York State Route 17. The government rotates between Jimerson Town and Irving on the Cattaraugus Reservation every two years, its next turn will begin in November 2014.
Historically the reservation was adjacent to the Cornplanter Tract, a 1500-acre perpetual land grant given to Seneca chief Cornplanter and his descendants that extended into Pennsylvania. The Cornplanter Tract constituted the only reserved native lands in the state of Pennsylvania. By 1957, the year Cornplanter's last direct descendant (Jesse Cornplanter) had died, the Cornplanter Tract had only a seasonal population. Both the Cornplanter Tract and the western portion of the Allegany Reservation were flooded and mostly made uninhabitable as a result of the construction of the Kinzua Dam; the Senecas were compensated mainly through the construction of Jimerson Town and a handful of other resettlement areas.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,099 people, 410 households, and 280 families residing in the Indian reservation (excluding the rented cities). The population density was 30.2/mi² (11.7/km²). There were 459 housing units at an average density of 12.6/mi² (4.9/km²). The racial makeup of the Indian reservation was 42.13% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 53.78% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.18% from other races, and 2.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.00% of the population.
There were 410 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the Indian reservation the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 103.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males.
The median income for a household in the Indian reservation was $28,971, and the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $23,958 versus $20,982 for females. The per capita income for the Indian reservation was $12,681. About 17.0% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 22.3% of those age 65 or over.