Alles nur nach Gottes Willen, BWV 72

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Alles nur nach Gottes Willen
BWV 72
Church cantata by J.S. Bach
Thomaskirche-1885.png
Related base for BWV 235
Occasion Third Sunday after Epiphany
Performed 26 January 1726 (1726-01-26) – Leipzig
Movements 6
Cantata text Salomon Franck
Bible text Matthew 8:2
Chorale by Albert, Duke of Prussia
Vocal
  • SATB choir
  • solo: soprano, alto and bass
Instrumental

Alles nur nach Gottes Willen (Everything following God's will alone), BWV 72, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig in 1726 for the third Sunday after Epiphany and first performed it on 27 January 1726. Bach used the opening chorus for the Gloria of his Missa in G minor, BWV 235.

History and text[edit]

Bach composed the cantata in his third annual cycle for the Third Sunday after Epiphany.[1] The prescribed readings for the Sunday were taken from the Epistle to the Romans, rules for life (Romans 12:17–21), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the healing of a leper (Matthew 8:1–13). The cantata text was written by Salomon Franck, who was Bach's librettist when they both worked for the ducal court in Weimar. Franck published it in Evangelisches Andachts-Opffer in 1715, whereas Bach composed the music much later. Ihr, die ihr euch von Christo nennet, BWV 164, is a comparable example of Bach turning to a text by Franck.

The closing chorale "Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit" was written by Albert, Duke of Prussia in 1547. The chorale theme (Zahn 7568) by Claudin de Sermisy first appeared in print in the collection of secular songs Trente et quatre chansons in 1528. Bach had used the chorale before as the base for his chorale cantata Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit, BWV 111, composed for the same occasion in 1725.[1]

Bach first performed the cantata on 27 January 1726.[1] He later used the opening chorus for the Gloria of his Missa in G minor, BWV 235.[2]

Scoring and structure[edit]

The cantata in six movements is scored for soprano, alto and bass soloists, a four-part choir, two oboes, two violins, viola and basso continuo.[1]

  1. Chorus: Alles nur nach Gottes Willen
  2. Recitative and arioso (alto): O selger Christ, der allzeit seinen Willen
  3. Aria (alto): Mit allem, was ich hab und bin
  4. Recitative (bass): So glaube nun
  5. Aria (soprano): Mein Jesus will es tun, er will dein Kreuz versüßen
  6. Chorale: Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit

Music[edit]

Although Franck had marked the first movement as an aria, Bach composed it as a chorus, opened by a ritornello dominated by runs of two measures in the violins, finally also in the continuo. The voices pick up the runs on the word "alles" (all), soprano first, and imitate each other one measure after the other, resulting in a complex image of "all". A rather quiet middle section on the words "Gottes Wille soll mich stillen" (God's will shall calm me) in canonic imitation is accompanied by the orchestra, the following words "bei Gewölk und Sonnenschein" (among clouds or sunshine) are illustrated by runs as in the beginning, but starting in a low range by the bass. The first and last section end with the choir embedded in the ritornello.

In his arrangement for the Gloria of the Missa, Bach drops the first ritornello, adapts the words "Gloria in excelsis Deo" to the first section, "Et in terra pax" to the middle section, and "Laudamus te" to the last section.

The first recitative begins as a secco, but develops to an arioso on the words "Herr, so du willt" (Lord, as you will), which are repeated nine times with a different continuo line, culminating in "so sterb ich nicht" (I will not die) the following line is again secco.

The following aria begins immediately with the voice, to ensure a connection between recitative and aria, then follows an unusual ritornello, a fugue with the two violins and the continuo.

In the second aria, more like a song and dance, the instruments play a ritornello and repeat it after a short sung passage: "Mein Jesus will es tun, er will dein Kreuz versüßen" (My Jesus will do it, He will sweeten Your cross). In the following main section the voice is embedded in the ritornello. The words of the middle section "Obgleich dein Herze liegt in viel Bekümmernissen" (Although your heart lies in many troubles) are sung in the minor mode. After the following ritornello the soloist repeats once more as a final statement, "mein Jesus will es tun".

The closing chorale is a four-part setting.

Selected recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 191–194. ISBN 3-423-04080-7. 
  2. ^ Steinitz, Margaret. Bach's Latin Church Music. London Bach Society. Retrieved 16 September 2010. 

Sources[edit]

The first source is the score.

Several databases provide additional information on each cantata: