Allies of World War I

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A map of the World showing the Triple Entente participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.
European military alliances prior to the war.

The Entente Powers or Allies (French: Forces de l'Entente / Alliés; Italian: Alleati; Romanian: Puterile Antantei / Aliații; Russian: Союзники, Soyuzniki; Serbian: Савезници, Saveznici; Turkish: İtilaf Devletleri) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire; Italy ended its alliance with the Central Powers and entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Romania and the Czechoslovak legions[1] were secondary members of the Entente.[2]

The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico.[3] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[4] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[5]

Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit.

From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed for the first time under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[6] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals.[citation needed] In April 1918, operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch.

The only countries represented in the 1918 armistice which ended the combat were Britain, France and Germany.

History[edit]

A 1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente.

The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August.[citation needed] On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.

Of the two Low Countries, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist State by the Entente Powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgian efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.[citation needed]. The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal into the war.

On 23 May 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations joined, Portugal and Romania.[citation needed]

On 6 April 1917 the United States and its American allies entered the war. Liberia, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[7]
Population Land GDP
Russian Empire (plus Poland and Finland) 173.2m (176.4m) 21.7m km2 (22.1m km2) $257.7b ($264.3b)
French Third Republic 39.8m (88.1m) 0.5m km2 (11.2m km2) $138.7b ($170.2b)
The British Empire 446.1m 33.3m km2 $561.2b
Empire of Japan (plus colonies) 55.1m (74.2m) 0.4m km2 (0.7m km2) $76.5b ($92.8b)
Kingdom of Italy (plus colonies) 35.6m (37.6m) 0.3m km2 (2.3m 2 ) $91.3b ($92.6b)
United States (plus overseas dependencies),[8] 96.5m (106.3m) 7.8m km2 (9.6m km2) $511.6b ($522.2b)
Allied approximate total 928.7m 79.2m km2 $1,703.3b

Major affiliated state combatants[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

British soldiers in a trench during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by shell fire during the Battle of Jutland.
British Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft during the war.

War justifications[edit]

In response to Germany's invasion of neutral Belgium, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[9] The British Empire held several semi-autonomous dominions that were automatically brought into the war effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Colonies and dependencies[edit]

In Europe[edit]

Gibraltar, Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in Europe.

In Africa[edit]

The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland, both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions against German forces from Togoland and Kamerun. In Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of South Africa was involved in military actions against German forces in German South-West Africa.

In North America[edit]

Canada and Newfoundland were two semi-autonomous dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort.

Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica.

In Asia[edit]

The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the British Raj that were an assortment of British imperial authorities in the territory then defined as India.

Australia and New Zealand were two semi-autonomous dominions of the UK in Asia during the war.

Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya - referring to several Malay states under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements; North Borneo; and Hong Kong.

Russia[edit]

Russian artillery firing.

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[10] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[10] Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[10] On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.

Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.[11]

France[edit]

French soldiers crossing a river on their way to Verdun during the Battle of Verdun.

After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[12]

Japan[edit]

Japanese soldiers landing in Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao in which Allied forces seized control of Germany's Kiautschou Bay concession.

Japan declared war on Germany after it did not accept an ultimatum sent by Japan to Germany, demanding that Germany extinguish its title to the Kiautschou Bay concession and restore that territory to China.[13] The Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public that Japan was not merely entering a "European War" on behalf of European powers, but that Japan was fighting on behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power, Germany, that Japan identified as the "source of evil in the Far East".[13] Thus as a result of this, Japan was following through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[13]

Italy[edit]

Italian alpine troops.

Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary since the 1880s, however the Triple Alliance stipulated that all parties must be consulted in the event of one country engaging in war and Italy was not informed of this.[14] As such Italy claimed that it was not obligated to join their war effort.[14] Italy's relations with Germany and Austria-Hungary in contrast to the Allies were additionally affected by the fact that in 1913, Britain supplied Italy with 90 percent of its annual imports of coal.[14] The war effort of the Central Powers meant that Germany and Austria-Hungary were using their coal supplies for the war, and little was available to be exported to Italy.[14] Italy initially attempted to pursue neutrality from 1914 to 1915.[14]

After diplomatic negotiations, Britain and France convinced Italy to join the war effort with promises that Italy would gain favourable territorial concessions from the Central Powers, including Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary.[15] Italy ordered mobilization on 22 May 1915, and issued an ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, and then declared war on Austria-Hungary, though it did not declare war on Germany.[15]

Minor affiliated state combatants[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, however Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result Belgium became a member of the Allies.

Brazil[edit]

Brazilian soldiers in World War I.

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers.

Montenegro[edit]

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Serbia[edit]

Serbian soldiers during World War I.

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population, and Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.

During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.

The first two allied victories in the war were won by Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in the western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country suffering great losses. Serbia had suffered great losses in the war, losing almost 50% of all men and around 30% of the entire country population. On July 28, 1918, the Serbian flag was raised at American public buildings, including the White House, on the order of President Woodrow Wilson as a sign of recognition for Serbia's resistance against the Central Powers. [16]

Major co-belligerent state combatants[edit]

United States[edit]

The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[3] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power," rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements."[4] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[5]

Non-state combatants[edit]

Four Non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

Leaders[edit]

France France[edit]

United Kingdom British Empire[edit]

Canada Dominion of Canada[edit]

Australia Commonwealth of Australia[edit]

British Raj British India[edit]

Union of South Africa Union of South Africa[edit]

New Zealand New Zealand[edit]

Russian Empire Russia[edit]

Kingdom of Serbia Serbia[edit]

Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro[edit]

Kingdom of Greece Greece[edit]

  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Constantin I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, without formally resigned.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King of Greece after his father retired from the throne.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general in the Hellenic Army.

Belgium Belgium[edit]

Kingdom of Italy Italy[edit]

Kingdom of Romania Romania[edit]

United States United States[edit]

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.

Empire of Japan Japan[edit]

Portugal Portugal[edit]

Thailand Siam[edit]

See main Article: Siam in World War I

Brazil Brazil[edit]

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

  • Venceslau BrasPresident of Brazil
  • Admiral Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet)
  • General Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918-1919)
    • M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission

Personnel and casualties[edit]

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Killed in action Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,9531 61,928[18] 152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,0003 38,172[19] 44,686 82,858 31%
Canada 628,9641 64,944[20] 149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,0003 1,397,800[21] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,0003 26,000[22] 21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,4371 74,187[23] 69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,0003 651,010[24] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,0003 415[25] 907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80[26] 8[26] 0 8[26] 10%
Montenegro 50,0003 3,000 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000[27] 30,670 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,5251 18,050[28] 41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,0003 7,222[29] 13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,0003 250,000[30] 120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,0003 1,811,000[31] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,3433 275,000[32] 133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,2842 19 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,0701 9,463[33] 12,029 21,492 16%
United Kingdom 6,211,9222 886,342[34] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
United States 4,355,0003 116,708[35] 205,690 322,398 7%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

Summary of Declarations of War[edit]

The following table shows the timeline of the several declarations of war among the belligerent powers. Entries on a yellow background show severed diplomatic relations only, not actual declarations of war. Unless stated otherwise, declarations of war by and on the United Kingdom include de facto declarations by and on other members of the British Empire.

Date Declarer On
1914
28 July Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
30 July Russian Empire Russia Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
1 August German Empire Germany Russian Empire Russia
1 August Monaco Monaco German Empire Germany
3 August German Empire Germany France France
4 August German Empire Germany Belgium Belgium
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom German Empire Germany
5 August Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
6 August Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Serbia Serbia German Empire Germany
9 August Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro German Empire Germany
11 August France France Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
12 August United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
22 August Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Belgium Belgium
23 August Empire of Japan Japan German Empire Germany
25 August Empire of Japan Japan Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
1 November Russian Empire Russia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
2 November Kingdom of Serbia Serbia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
3 November Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
5 November United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
France France
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
1915
23 May Kingdom of Italy Italy Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
3 June San Marino San Marino Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
21 August Kingdom of Italy Italy Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
14 October Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
15 October United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
16 October France France Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
19 October Kingdom of Italy Italy
Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
1916
9 March German Empire Germany Portugal Portugal
15 March Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Portugal Portugal
27 August Kingdom of Romania Romania Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Kingdom of Italy Italy German Empire Germany
28 August German Empire Germany Kingdom of Romania Romania
30 August Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Romania Romania
1 September Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Romania Romania
1917
6 April United States United States German Empire Germany
7 April Cuba Cuba German Empire Germany
10 April Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria United States United States
13 April Bolivia Bolivia German Empire Germany
20 April Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire United States United States
2 July Kingdom of Greece Greece German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
22 July Thailand Siam German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
4 August Liberia Liberia German Empire Germany
14 August Republic of China (1912–1949) China German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
6 October Peru Peru German Empire Germany
7 October Uruguay Uruguay German Empire Germany
26 October Brazil Brazil German Empire Germany[36]
7 December United States United States Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
7 December Ecuador Ecuador German Empire Germany
10 December Panama Panama Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
16 December Cuba Cuba Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
1918
23 April Guatemala Guatemala German Empire Germany
8 May Nicaragua Nicaragua German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
23 May Costa Rica Costa Rica German Empire Germany
12 July Haiti Haiti German Empire Germany
19 July Honduras Honduras German Empire Germany
10 November Kingdom of Romania Romania German Empire Germany

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  2. ^ First World War.com – Feature Articles – The Causes of World War One
  3. ^ a b US Declaration of War
  4. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  5. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  6. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
  7. ^ S.N. Broadberry, Mark Harrison. The Economics of World War I. illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press, 2005, pgs. 7–8.
  8. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the parenthetical figures.
  9. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  10. ^ a b c Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806-1914. P262
  11. ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
  12. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  13. ^ a b c Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P155.
  14. ^ a b c d e Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P194.
  15. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P194-198.
  16. ^ http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Tema-nedelje/125-godina-sa-Amerikom/t31701.lt.html
  17. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  18. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
  19. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
  20. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
  21. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
  22. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
  23. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
  24. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
  25. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
  26. ^ a b c Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur | Nice-Matin
  27. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  28. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
  29. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
  30. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
  31. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
  32. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
  33. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
  34. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
  35. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.
  36. ^ Declarations of War, 1914–1918

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)