Allium fistulosum

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See also: Scallion
Welsh onion
Batun.jpg
Allium fistulosum at a farm
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. fistulosum
Binomial name
Allium fistulosum
L.
Synonyms[1][2]
  • Allium bouddae Debeaux
  • Allium fistulosum var. caespitosum Makino
  • Allium fistulosum var. giganteum Makino
  • Allium kashgaricum Prokh.
  • Allium saxatile Pall.
  • Allium wakegi Araki
  • Cepa fissilis Garsault
  • Cepa fistulosa (L.) Gray
  • Cepa ventricosa Moench
  • Kepa fistulosa (L.) Raf.
  • Phyllodolon fistulosum (L.) Salisb.
  • Porrum fistulosum (L.) Schur
Allium fistulosum
Welsh onions, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 142 kJ (34 kcal)
6.5 g
Sugars 2.18 g
Dietary fiber 2.4 g
0.4 g
1.9 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A 1160 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(4%)
0.05 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)
0.09 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.4 mg
(3%)
0.169 mg
Vitamin B6
(6%)
0.072 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
16 μg
Vitamin C
(33%)
27 mg
Vitamin E
(3%)
0.51 mg
Vitamin K
(184%)
193.4 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(5%)
52 mg
Iron
(9%)
1.22 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
23 mg
Manganese
(7%)
0.137 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
49 mg
Potassium
(5%)
212 mg
Sodium
(1%)
17 mg
Zinc
(5%)
0.52 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion) is a perennial onion. Other names that may be applied to this plant include green onion, spring onion, scallion, escallion, and salad onion. These names are ambiguous, as they may also be used to refer to any young green onion stalk, whether grown from Welsh onions, common onions, or other similar members of the genus Allium (see scallion). The species is very similar in taste and odor to the related common onion, Allium cepa, and hybrids between the two (tree onions) exist. The Welsh onion, however, does not develop bulbs, and possesses hollow leaves ("fistulosum" means "hollow") and scapes. Large varieties of the Welsh onion resemble the leek, such as the Japanese 'negi', whilst smaller varieties resemble chives. Many Welsh onions can multiply by forming perennial evergreen clumps.[3][4] Next to culinary use, it is also grown in a bunch as an ornamental plant.

Historically, the Welsh onion was known as the cibol.[5] In Cornwall they are known as chibbles.

The name "Welsh onion" has become a misnomer in modern English, as Allium fistulosum is not indigenous to Wales or particularly common in Welsh cuisine (the green Allium common to Wales is the leek, A. ampeloprasum, the national vegetable of Wales). "Welsh" preserves the original meaning of the Old English word "welisc", or Old German "welsche", meaning "foreign" (compare wal- in "walnut", of the same etymological origin). The species originated in Asia, possibly Siberia or China. In Wales, the spring onion has a dialectal variation, jibbons or sibwns (pronounced 'shiboons') which originates from the French 'ciboule.'[citation needed] The species has also become naturalized in Alaska and in the Northwest Territories of Canada, and in scattered locales in the contiguous United States.[6][7]

Culinary use[edit]

In the West, the Welsh onion is primarily used as a scallion or salad onion, but is widely used in other parts of the world, particularly East Asia.[8]

Russia[edit]

Welsh onions are used in Russia in the spring for adding green leaves to salads.

Asia[edit]

The Welsh onion is an ingredient in Asian cuisine, especially in East and Southeast Asia. It is particularly important in China, Japan, and Korea, hence the other English name for this plant, 'Japanese bunching onion'. The Japanese name is negi. Common onions were introduced to East Asia in the 19th century, but A. fistulosum remains more popular and widespread.[8]

It is used in miso soup, negimaki (beef and scallion rolls),[9] among others, and it is widely sliced up and used as a garnish, such as on teriyaki or takoyaki.

Jamaica[edit]

Known as escallion,[10] the Welsh onion is an ingredient in Jamaican cuisine, in combination with thyme, scotch bonnet pepper, garlic and allspice (called pimenta). Recipes with escallion sometimes suggest leek as a substitute in salads. Jamaican dried spice mixtures using escallion are available commercially.

The Jamaican name is probably a variant of scallion, the term used loosely for the spring onion and various other plants in the genus Allium.

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos
  2. ^ The Plant List
  3. ^ Floridata: Allium fistulosum
  4. ^ Thompson, Sylvia (1995). The Kitchen Garden. Bantam Books. 
  5. ^ Ward, A: The Encyclopedia of Food and Beverage, New York, 1911. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  6. ^ Flora of North America v 26 p 244.
  7. ^ BONAP (Biota of North America Project) floristic synthesis, Allium fistulosum
  8. ^ a b Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 0-85199-510-1. 
  9. ^ "Recipe - Chicken Negimaki - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. August 13, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Ministry of Agriculture and Lands Standard Specification for Escallion". Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jamaica. April 1987 (revised June 1999). Retrieved August 20, 2010.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

External links[edit]