Alnwick

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Alnwick
Alnwick and Alnwick Castle - Northumberland - 140804.jpg
The town of Alnwick, nestling behind Alnwick Castle
Alnwick is located in Northumberland
Alnwick
Alnwick
 Alnwick shown within Northumberland
Population 7,950 (2001 census)[1]
OS grid reference NU186129
Unitary authority Northumberland
Ceremonial county Northumberland
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ALNWICK
Postcode district NE66
Dialling code 01665
Police Northumbria
Fire Northumberland
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament Berwick-upon-Tweed
List of places
UK
England
Northumberland

Coordinates: 55°24′48″N 1°42′25″W / 55.4134°N 1.7069°W / 55.4134; -1.7069

Alnwick (Listeni/ˈænɨk/ annick) is a market town in north Northumberland, England. The town's population was just over 8,000 at the 2001 census, while the former Alnwick district's population was 31,029.

According to Country Life, October 2002, "Alnwick is the most picturesque market town in Northumberland, and the best place to live in Britain".[2] The town is situated largely on the south bank of the River Aln, 32 miles (51 km) south of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the Scottish border, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the North Sea at Alnmouth and 34 miles (55 km) north of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne.

The town dates back to about AD 600, and over the centuries has thrived as an agricultural centre; as the location of Alnwick Castle and home of the most powerful medieval northern baronial family, the Earls of Northumberland; as a staging post on the Great North Road between Edinburgh and London, and latterly as a modern rural centre and dormitory town. The fabric of the town centre has changed relatively little, and retains much of its original character; but the town has grown a lot over the last ten years[when?], with several housing estates covering what had been pasture, and new factory and trading estate developments along the roads to the south of the town.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Northumberland

The history of Alnwick is the history of the castle and its lords, starting with Gilbert Tyson, written variously as "Tison", "Tisson", and "De Tesson", one of William the Conqueror's standard bearers, upon whom this northern estate was bestowed. It was held by the De Vesci family (now spelt "Vasey" – a name found all over south-east Northumberland) for over 200 years, and then passed into the hands of the house of Percy in 1309.

At various points in the town are memorials of the constant wars between Percys and Scots, in which so many Percys spent the greater part of their lives. A cross near Broomhouse Hill across the river from the castle marks the spot where Malcolm III of Scotland was killed during the first Battle of Alnwick (1093). At the side of the broad shady road called Ratten Row, leading from the West Lodge to Bailiffgate, a stone tablet marks the spot where William the Lion of Scotland was captured during the second Battle of Alnwick (1174) by a party of about 400 mounted knights, led by Ranulf de Glanvill.

Hulne Priory, outside the town walls in Hulne Park, the Duke of Northumberland's walled estate, was a monastery founded in the 13th century by the Carmelites; it is said that the site was chosen for some slight resemblance to Mount Carmel where the order originated. Substantial ruins remain.

In 1314, Sir John Felton was governor of Alnwick.[3] In winter 1424, much of the town was burnt by a Scottish raiding party. Again in 1448 the town was burnt by a Scottish army led by William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas and George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus.

The Alnwick by-pass takes the A1 London – Edinburgh trunk road around the town. It was started in 1968.[4]

Geography[edit]

Alnwick lies at 55°25′00″N 01°42′00″W / 55.41667°N 1.70000°W / 55.41667; -1.70000 (55.417, -1.700)1. The River Aln forms its unofficial northern boundary. Historically, the town was partly within the Bamburgh Ward and Coquetdale Ward and later included in the East Division of Coquetdale Ward in 1832.[5]

Economy[edit]

Barter Books in Alnwick.

Formerly a largely rural and agrarian community, the town now lies well within the "travel to work" radius of Morpeth and Newcastle upon Tyne and has a sizeable commuter population. Some major or noteworthy employers in the town are:

  • Metrology Software Products Ltd, developers and suppliers of coordinate measuring machine and machine tool software
  • House of Hardy, makers of fly-fishing tackle
  • Greys of Alnwick, makers of fly-fishing tackle
  • Northumberland Estates, which manages the Duke of Northumberland's agricultural, forestry and property interests
  • Barter Books, one of the largest second-hand book shops in England, set in the town's former railway station
  • Sanofi Alnwick Research Centre, a large pharmaceutical research and testing centre
  • Wm Morrison Supermarkets Plc
  • Sainsbury's Plc
  • George F White, North East based company with its head office in the centre of Alnwick since 1979
  • Proudlock House & Home, retailer of gifts, cookware, home furnishings, gardening, housewares and hardware
  • NFU Mutual, provider of insurance, pensions, investments
  • DEFRA (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs)
  • Skin Salveation manufacturers and distributors of skin care products

Landmarks[edit]

The town's greatest building by far is Alnwick Castle, one of the homes of the Duke of Northumberland, and site of The Alnwick Garden; it dominates the west of the town, above the River Aln. The castle is the hub of a number of commercial, educational and tourism operations. From 1945 to 1975, it was the location of a teacher training college for young women and "mature students" (persons of more than 21 years in age). Currently, it houses American students studying in Europe through a partnership with Saint Cloud State University; it is the base of Northumberland Estates, the Duke's commercial enterprise; and is in its own right a tourist attraction. The castle is open to tourists from April to September, and the Gardens all year around. It is the second largest inhabited castle in England, after Windsor Castle. Benjamin Disraeli describes Alnwick as 'Montacute' in his novel Tancred.

Alnwick marketplace at night

The centre of town is the market place, with its market cross, and the relatively modern Northumberland Hall, used as a meeting place. Surrounding the market place are the main shopping streets: Narrowgate, Fenkle Street, and Bondgate Within. The last of these is a wide road fronted by commercial buildings. In medieval times, Alnwick was a walled town, although due to fluctuating economic conditions during the Middle Ages, the walls were never completed. Hotspur Tower, a medieval gate, is extant, dividing Bondgate Within from Bondgate Without, and restricting vehicles to a single lane used alternately in each direction. Pottergate Tower, at the other side of the town, also stands on the site of an ancient gate, but the tower itself was rebuilt in the 18th century. Its ornate spire was destroyed in a storm in 1812. Outside the line of the walls, the old railway station building is relatively ostentatious for such a small town, due to its frequent use by royal travellers visiting Alnwick Castle. It is now a large secondhand bookshop.

The town has a thriving playhouse, a multi-purpose arts centre, which stages theatre, dance, music, cinema, and visual arts productions.

In 2003, the Willowburn Sports and Leisure Centre was opened on the southern outskirts of the enlarged town (replacing the old sports centre located by the Lindisfarne Middle School and the now-demolished Youth Centre). More widely, the Alnwick district boasts a wealth of sporting and leisure facilities, including football, cricket, rugby, rambling, rock climbing, water sports, cycling and horse riding. Golfers can find thirteen golf courses within 30 minutes drive of the town.

The castle is popular with film-makers: Harry Potter; Blackadder and Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves are some of the films shot here.

The Front of Bailiffgate Museum , a museum of Local History

Alnwick's museum, Bailiffgate Museum, is close to the Bailiffgate entrance to the castle. Its collection is specifically dedicated to local social history. The museum has recently had a major refit funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Its collection includes a variety of agricultural objects, domestic items, railway items, coal mining artefacts, printing objects, a sizable photographic collection, paintings and a range of activities for children.[6] Local artist Stella Vine donated 3 of her paintings to the museum, as she had grown up in Alnwick.

Other places of interest in and near the town include:

Brizlee Tower, a folly and observation platform overlooking Hulne Park, the Duke of Northumberand's walled estate by Alnwick Castle

Sport[edit]

Events[edit]

Major events in the Alnwick calendar include:

  • A Shrove Tuesday football match known as Scoring the Hales is played in the Pastures (the fields below the castle) between the parishes of St Paul and St Michael. The ball is brought from Alnwick Castle in procession, preceded by the Duke of Northumberland's piper. The first team to score two "hales" (goals) wins.
  • the Alnwick International Music Festival
  • the Alnwick Castle Tournament – a medieval jousting spectacular in the grounds of Alnwick Castle

The Alnwick Fair was an annual costumed event, held each summer from 1969 to 2007, recreating some of the appearance of medieval trading fairs and 17th century agricultural fairs. It has now been discontinued.[7]

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Bondgate Tower

Alnwick town lies adjacent to the A1, the main national north/south trunk road, providing easy access to Newcastle upon Tyne (35 miles (56 km) south) and to the Scottish capital Edinburgh (80 miles (130 km) north). The town is an 'A1 Town', there are several such similar towns in the North of England such as (North to South), Berwick Upon Tweed (28.1 miles North), Morpeth (28.3 miles South), Newton Aycliffe (65.1 miles South) and Wetherby (116 miles South). Being such a stopping point on the A1 (particularly in such a rural area) provides Alnwick with a lot of passing trade and tourism.

Rail[edit]

The main East Coast railway link between Edinburgh (journey time approximately 1:10) and London (journey time approximately 3:45) runs via the nearby Alnmouth for Alnwick Station, with a weekday service of 15 trains per day north to Edinburgh and 13 trains per day south to London. Despite its name, Alnmouth Station is located at the western end of the village of Hipsburn, near to the hamlet of Bilton. It also serves the village of Lesbury.

Alnwick was once connected to the main line by the Alnwick branch line, but this was closed in January 1968. The Aln Valley Railway Trust, is in stages, reconstructing the branch as a heritage railway. The Alnwick terminus, called Lionheart station, is located near the Lionheart Enterprise Estate on the outskirts of the town rather than on the site of the original Alnwick railway station closer to the town centre. The building of the A1 bypass makes reopening the section of the line leading into the town centre unviable.

Air[edit]

Newcastle Airport lies around 45 minutes drive-time away, and provides 19 daily flights to London (Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and London City), with regular flights to other UK centres. The airport also operates regular flights to many European destinations, along with destinations in Africa and North America. Newcastle Airport is the nearest, however for alternative flights, Edinburgh Airport, Manchester Airport and Leeds Bradford Airport are all within 150 miles (240 km).

Town twinning[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Born in Alnwick[edit]

Died in Alnwick[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics: Neighbourhood Statistics
  2. ^ [1], Country Life Magazine.
  3. ^ http://www.archive.org/stream/dictionarynatio23stepgoog#page/n321/mode/1up p.309
  4. ^ "News and Views: A1 Alnwick by-pass". Autocar: page 57. 15 February 1968. 
  5. ^ George Tate, The History of the Borough, Castle, and Barony of Alnwick (Vol. 1). Alnwick: Henry Hunter Blair, 1866.
  6. ^ [2], Retrieved 23 December 2008.
  7. ^ http://www.northumberlandgazette.co.uk/news/Death-of-the-Fair.3777345.jp Death of Alnwick Fair, retrieved 2010 August 23

External links[edit]