Aloe

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Aloe
Aloe succotrina - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-007.jpg
Aloe succotrina[1]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae
Subfamily: Asphodeloideae
Genus: Aloe
L.[2]
Species

See Species

Synonyms[2]
Succulent plants, such as this aloe, store water in their enlarged fleshy leaves, stems, or roots, as shown in this split aloe leaf. This allows them to survive in arid environments.

Aloe (/ˈæl/ or /ˈæl/), also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.[3] The most widely known species is Aloe vera, or "true aloe", so called because, though probably extinct in the wild, it is cultivated as the standard source of so-called "aloe vera" for assorted pharmaceutical purposes.[4] Other species, such as Aloe ferox, also are cultivated or harvested from the wild for similar applications.

The APG III system (2009) places the genus in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae.[5] In the past, it has also been assigned to families Aloaceae and Liliaceae or lily family. The plant Agave americana, which is sometimes called "American aloe", belongs to the Asparagaceae, a different family.

The genus is native to tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula, and various islands in the Indian Ocean (Mauritius, Réunion, Comoros, etc.). A few species have also become naturalized in other regions (Mediterranean, India, Australia, North and South America, etc.).[2]

Description[edit]

Most Aloe species have a rosette of large, thick, fleshy leaves. Aloe flowers are tubular, frequently yellow, orange, pink, or red, and are borne, densely clustered and pendant, at the apex of simple or branched, leafless stems. Many species of Aloe appear to be stemless, with the rosette growing directly at ground level; other varieties may have a branched or unbranched stem from which the fleshy leaves spring. They vary in color from grey to bright-green and are sometimes striped or mottled. Some aloes native to South Africa are tree-like (arborescent).[6]

Systematics[edit]

The APG III system (2009) places the genus in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae.[5] In the past it has also been assigned to the families Liliaceae and Aloeaceae, as well as the family Asphodelaceae, before this was merged into the Xanthorrhoeaceae.

The circumscription of the genus has varied widely. Many genera, such as Lomatophyllum,[7] have been brought into synonymy. Species at one time placed in Aloe, such as Agave americana, have been moved to other genera.[8]

Species[edit]

Main article: List of Aloe species

Over 500 species are accepted in the genus Aloe, plus even more synonyms and unresolved species, subspecies, varieties, and hybrids. Some of the accepted species are:[3]

Uses[edit]

Aloe species are frequently cultivated as ornamental plants both in gardens and in pots. Many aloe species are highly decorative and are valued by collectors of succulents. Aloe vera is used both internally and externally on humans, and is claimed to have some medicinal effects, which have been supported by scientific and medical research.[4] They can also be made into types of special soaps.

Historical uses[edit]

Historical use of various aloe species is well documented. Documentation of the clinical effectiveness is available, although relatively limited.[4][9]

Of the 500+ species, only a few were used traditionally as a herbal medicine, Aloe vera again being the most commonly used species. Also included are A. perryi and A. ferox. The Ancient Greeks and Romans used Aloe vera to treat wounds. In the Middle Ages, the yellowish liquid found inside the leaves was favored as a purgative.[citation needed] Unprocessed aloe that contains aloin is generally used as a laxative, whereas processed juice does not usually contain significant aloin.[citation needed]

Some species, particularly Aloe vera, are used in alternative medicine and first aid. Both the translucent inner pulp and the resinous yellow aloin from wounding the aloe plant are used externally to relieve skin discomforts. As an herbal medicine, Aloe vera juice is commonly used internally to relieve digestive discomfort.[10][11]

Relatively few studies about possible benefits of aloe gel taken internally have been conducted. Components of Aloe have shown the possibility of inhibiting tumor growth in animal studies, but these effects have not been demonstrated clinically in humans.[12] Some studies in animal models indicate that extracts of Aloe have a significant antihyperglycemic effect, and may be useful in treating Type II diabetes, but these studies have not been confirmed in humans.[13]

According to Cancer Research UK, a potentially deadly product called T-UP is made of concentrated aloe, and promoted as a cancer cure. They say "there is currently no evidence that aloe products can help to prevent or treat cancer in humans".[14]

Aloin in OTC laxative products[edit]

On May 9, 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule banning the use of aloin, the yellow sap of the aloe plant, for use as a laxative ingredient in over-the-counter drug products.[15] Most aloe juices today do not contain significant aloin.

Chemical properties[edit]

According to W. A. Shenstone, two classes of aloins are recognized: (1) nataloins, which yield picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, and do not give a red coloration with nitric acid; and (2) barbaloins, which yield aloetic acid (C7H2N3O5), chrysammic acid (C7H2N2O6), picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, being reddened by the acid. This second group may be divided into a-barbaloins, obtained from Barbados Aloe, and reddened in the cold, and b-barbaloins, obtained from Socotrine and Zanzibar Aloe, reddened by ordinary nitric acid only when warmed or by fuming acid in the cold. Nataloin (2C17H13O7·H2O) forms bright-yellow scales, barbaloin (C17H18O7) prismatic crystals. Aloe species also contain a trace of volatile oil, to which their odour is due.[citation needed]

Heraldic occurrence[edit]

Aloe rubrolutea occurs as a charge in heraldry, for example in the Civic Heraldry of Namibia.[16]

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. ^ a b c "Aloe". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  3. ^ a b The Plant List (2010). Version 1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed July 2013)
  4. ^ a b c "Aloe Vera: Science and Safety". NIH National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. April 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Asphodeloideae". 
  6. ^ Rodd, Tony; Stackhouse, Jennifer (2008). Trees: a Visual Guide. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780520256507. 
  7. ^ "Lomatophyllum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  8. ^ "Aloe americana". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  9. ^ Tom Reynolds, ed. (2004). Aloes: the Genus Aloe. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-30672-0. 
  10. ^ Wong, Cathy (September 15, 2012). "Heartburn Remedies". About.com. 
  11. ^ "Aloe IBS study". 
  12. ^ Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert, Panel (2007). "Final report on the safety assessment of Aloe andongensis extract, Aloe andongensis leaf juice, Aloe arborescens leaf extract, Aloe arborescens leaf juice, Aloe arborescens leaf protoplasts, Aloe barbadensis flower extract, Aloe barbadensis leaf, Aloe barbadensis leaf extract, Aloe barbadensis leaf juice, Aloe barbadensis leaf polysaccharides, Aloe barbadensis leaf water, Aloe ferox leaf extract, Aloe ferox leaf juice, and Aloe ferox leaf juice extract". Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (Suppl 2): 1–50. doi:10.1080/10915810701351186. PMID 17613130. 
  13. ^ Tanaka M, Misawa E, Ito Y, Habara N, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, Toida T, Hayasawa H, Takase M, Inagaki M, Higuchi R (2006). "Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds". Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29 (7): 1418–22. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.1418. PMID 16819181. 
  14. ^ "Aloe". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  15. ^ "Status of certain additional over-the-counter drug category II and III active ingredients. Final rule". Fed Regist (Food and Drug Administration, HHS) 67 (90): 31125–7. 2002. PMID 12001972. 
  16. ^ "Civic Heraldry of Namibia". Heraldry of the World. Ralf Hartemink. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 

External links[edit]