Dr. Alois Alzheimer
14 June 1864|
|Died||19 December 1915
Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland)
|Cause of death||Heart failure|
|Education||University of Tübingen
University of Würzburg
|Known for||First published case of "presenile dementia" (Alzheimer's disease)|
|Institutions||Institute for the Insane and Epileptic ("Irrenschloss"), Frankfurt am Main|
Aloysius "Alois" Alzheimer (German pronunciation: [ˈaːloˌis ˈalts.haɪmɐ]) (14 June 1864 – 19 December 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia", which Kraepelin would later identify as Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer attended Aschaffenburg, Tübingen, Berlin, and Würzburg universities. He received a medical degree at Würzburg University in 1886. In the following year, he spent five months assisting mentally ill women, before he took an office in the city mental asylum in Frankfurt am Main: the Städtische Anstalt für Irre und Epileptische (Asylum for Lunatics and Epileptics). Emil Sioli (1852–1922) was the dean of the asylum. Another neurologist, Franz Nissl (1860–1919), began to work in the same asylum with Alzheimer, and they knew each other. Much of Alzheimer's later work on brain pathology made use of Nissl's method of silver staining of the histological sections. Alzheimer was the co-founder and co-publisher of the journal Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, though he never wrote a book that he could call his own.
In 1901, Dr. Alzheimer observed a patient at the Frankfurt Asylum named Auguste Deter. The 51-year-old patient had strange behavioral symptoms, including a loss of short-term memory. This patient would become his obsession over the coming years. In April 1906, Mrs Deter died and Alzheimer had the patient records and the brain brought to Munich where he was working at Kraepelin's lab. With two Italian physicians, he used the staining techniques to identify amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. A speech given on 3 November 1906 was the first time the pathology and the clinical symptoms of presenile dementia were presented together. Through extremely fortunate circumstances the original microscope preparations on which Alzheimer based his description of the disease were rediscovered some years ago in Munich and his findings could thus be reevaluated.
Since German was the lingua franca of science (and especially of psychiatry) at that time, Kraepelin's use of Alzheimer's disease in a textbook made the name famous. By 1911, his description of the disease was being used by European physicians to diagnose patients in the US.
In mid-December 1915, Dr. Alzheimer fell ill on the train on his way to the University of Breslau, where he had been appointed professor of psychiatry in 1912. Most probably he had a streptococcal infection and subsequent rheumatic fever and kidney failure. He died of heart failure at the age of 51 in Breslau, Silesia, presently Wrocław, Poland. He was buried next to his wife in the Hauptfriedhof in Frankfurt am Main.
- Berrios G E (1991) Alzheimer’s Disease: A Conceptual History. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 5: 355-365
- Zilka, N.; M. Novak (2006). "The tangled story of Alois Alzheimer". Bratisl Lek Listy 107 (9-10): 343–345. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Marktbreit: Alzheimer´s Birthplace"
- Maurer K., Maurer U. (2003). Alzheimer: The Life of a Physician and Career of a Disease. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11896-1.
- Graeber MB, Koesel S, Egensperger R, Banati RB, Mueller U, Bise K, Hoff P, Moeller HJ, Fujisawa K, Mehraein P (1997). "Rediscovery of the case described by Alois Alzheimer in 1911: historical, histological and molecular genetic analysis". Neurogenetics 1 (1): 73–80. doi:10.1007/s100480050011. PMID 10735278.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alois Alzheimer.|
- Who Named It? - Alois Alzheimer
- Alzheimer's: 100 years on
- Alois Alzheimer's Biography, International Brain Research Organization
- Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease Research - Prof. Dr. Christian Haass
- Bibliography of secondary sources on Alois Alzheimer and Alzheimer's disease, selected from peer-reviewed journals.
- Graeber Manuel B. "Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915)" International Brain Research Organization
- Help Dementia Uk