Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta
Dr. Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta (October 31, 1729, Villagarcía del Llano, Cuenca Province, Spain—May 26, 1800, Mexico City) was archbishop of Mexico from September 12, 1772 to May 26, 1800, and viceroy of New Spain from May 8, 1787 to August 16, 1787.
Origins and education
Núñez de Haro was born in the diocese of Cuenca, Spain, probably on October 31, 1729, although some sources give the date as November 1. He began his studies at the University of Toledo, then received his doctorate from the University of Bologna. Thereafter he became professor at the University of Ávila. He was also a canon in Segovia and Toledo. Studious and intelligent, he learned Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French and Italian.
In 1771 he was named archbishop of Mexico.
Archbishop of Mexico
As archbishop, he converted the College of Tepotzotlán into the Seminario de Instrucción, Retiro Voluntario y Corrección, a kind of jail for ecclesiastics. He advanced the work on the Chapel of Pocito in Guadalupe and on the cathedral in Mexico City. He established a foundling home and a Capuchin convent. He added many books to the library of the archdiocese and ordered scholarships and prizes for distinguished seminary students.
In 1770 Archbishop Núñez de Haro also converted a Jesuit seminary and residence into the Hospital San Andrés. This hospital was modeled on the General Hospital in Madrid and was intended to treat all ailments. In 1788 he added to its functions those of the Hospital Amor de Dios, which was dedicated to the treatment of syphilis. The Hospital San Andrés remained the responsibility of the archdiocese, although it received considerable official support. It eventually had a capacity of 1,000 beds, arranged in 39 wards. In addition, it contained the largest apothecary shop in New Spain, a chandler's shop, a laboratory, and a department for dissections and post mortem examinations. It had the income of 22 urban properties, a share of the tithes, and a monopoly on the game of pelota.
Viceroy of New Spain
New Spain Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid died November 30, 1786. On May 8, 1787 Núñez de Haro was named as his interim replacement. He served for three months, until turning over the office to the newly arrived viceroy Manuel Antonio Flores on August 16, 1787.
During his term, he consolidated the establishment of the intendencias, proposed by visitador José de Gálvez. These were provincial administrations throughout the colony responsible to the viceroy. A botanical garden was founded, and plants were brought from all parts of the colony. Naturalist Martín Sessé y Lacasta was named the director.
He tried to aid the Indigenous by abolishing the assessments, but his orders were not carried out. He proposed reforms of the court for the Indians, cutting costs and red tape. He sent a large sum of money to Havana to buy slaves from the British and Dutch.
After leaving the office of viceroy, Núñez de Haro continued as archbishop of Mexico for the remainder of his life. In 1792 King Charles IV decorated him with the Gran Cruz de Carlos III. Until his death in 1800, he continued to receive the treatment and honors due the viceroy of New Spain.
- (Spanish) "Hospitales," Enciclopedia de México, v. 7. Mexico City: 1987.
- (Spanish) "Núñez de Haro y Peralta, Alonso," Enciclopedia de México, v. 10. Mexico City: 1987.
- (Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984.
- (Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
|Catholic Church titles|
Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Butrón
|Archbishop of Mexico
1772 – 1800
Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont
Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid
|Viceroy of New Spain
Manuel Antonio Flores